Stephen M. Reilly

Professor, Biological Sciences

Program in Ecology & Evolutionary Biology

Director, OCEES 

Ohio Center for Ecology & Evolutionary Studies

      www.ocees.ohio.edu

Ph. D. 1986, Southern Illinois University

Evolutionary & Functional Morphology

 

Email: reilly@ohiou.edu

Office:   Life Sciences Building 129

Phone:  (740) 593-0424           Fax: (-0300)

       Department Office (-2290)

 

Address: Dr. Stephen M. Reilly

         Department of Biological Sciences

         Athens OH 45701

  

Current research in frog jumping

Teaching

Reilly Lab Graduates

Research papers 

(some PDF's)

    Books

PICS

Frog team in NZ

Family

 

Current research in the lab is focusing on the evolution of jumping in frogs. 

 

Pelvic function in anuran jumping: Interspecific differences in the kinematics and motor control of the iliosacral articulation during take-off and landing. In the Journal of Morphology.   

   All frogs use both sagittal flexion and anterior-posterior translation during landing. A new model for pelvic function in the lateral-bender frog pelvis is presented.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

Movement patterns in leiopelmatid frogs: Insights into the locomotor repertoire of basal anurans Behavior Processes 121: 43–53.  

 

 

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Functional evolution of jumping in frogs: interspecific differences in take-off and landing. In the Journal of Morphology.  

 

 

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

Conquering the world in leaps and bounds:  hopping locomotion in toads is actually bounding. In Functional Ecology 

 

 

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Landing in basal frogs: evidence of saltational patternsin the evolution of anuran locomotion. Naturwissenschaften 97:935–939.

With anatomical and functional studies we have shown that jumping behavior and pelvic anatomy have evolved in a stepwise fashion in frogs.  Frogs first evolved jumping with a belly-flopping landing and later evolved hands-first landing.  

see the Australian Broadcasting story / video on the evolution of frog jumping

also:

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-10743038   

Belly-flopping frogs press release

 

 

 

 

 

The flexibility of the lateral bender pelvis to function in sagittal bending and AP translation helps to explain the retention of this basal configuration in most anurans.  HOwever, the novel function of the rod-like pelvis ("sagittal-hinge" pelvis) appears to be to increase the rate of trunk elevation during the launch to match faster rates of energy release from their hindlimbs which enable them to jump farther. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Field studies of locomotor behavior in the world oldest frogs - early frogs did not jump, much

 

 

In frogs the landing has evolved more than the take-off. 

From belly-flopping 

 

 

to hands, then belly 

 

 

 

to the hands taking on most of the landing forces.  

 

 

 

 

 

Toads bound like rabbits and in fact, prefer bounding gaits in locomotion 

 

 

 

 

Naturwissenschaften paper PDF

See associated individual species leaping videos

below

Early frogs had not figured out how to land on their feet .......

Click below to see individual species JUMPING MOVIES

Tailed Frogs...

                         

Shallow Jump               Medium jump             Steep Jump (OUCH!)

 

 

 

 

 

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Frog pelvic design has evolved, as well, going from a hopping system to many versions of jumping and climbing pelvic systems.

 

The evolution of jumping in frogs: Morphological evidence for the basal anuran locomotor condition and the radiation of locomotor systems in crown group anurans. J. Morphol. 272:149-168.  

See supplemental videos of pelvic movements here

Phylogenetic patterns of skeletal morphometics and pelvic traits in frogs in relation to foraging mode. J. Evol. Biol. 26:929-43.

........But later frogs did:

Fire bellied toad

Green Frog

 

 

 

Research Books

Ecological Morphology: Integrative Organsimal Biology       1994 - University of Chicago Press

Edited by Peter Wainwright and Steve Reilly

   Ecological morphology examines the relation between an animal's anatomy and physiology—its form and function—and how the animal has evolved in and can inhabit a particular environment.  Ecological Morphology is a synthesis of major concepts and a demonstration of the ways in which this integrative approach can yield rich and surprising results.
   Through this interdisciplinary study, scientists have been able to understand, for instance, how bat wing design affects habitat use and bat diet; how the size of a predator affects its ability to capture and eat certain prey; and how certain mosquitoes have evolved physiologically and morphologically to tolerate salt-water habitats. Ecological Morphology also covers the history of the field, the role of the comparative method in studying adaptation, and the use of data from modern organisms for understanding the ecology of fossil communities.
   This book provides an overview of the achievements and potential of ecological morphology for all biologists and students interested in the way animal design, ecology, and evolution interact.

 

 

Lizard Ecology: The evolutionary consequences of foraging mode    2007 - Cambridge University Press

Edited by Steve Reilly, Lance McBrayer, and Don Miles

 

    The foraging mode of lizards has been a central theme in guiding research in lizard biology for three decades. Foraging mode has been shown to be a pervasive evolutionary force molding the diet, ecology, behavior, anatomy, biomechanics, life history and physiology of lizards. This volume reviews the state of our knowledge on the effects of foraging mode on these and other organismal systems to show how they have evolved, over a wide taxonomic survey of lizard groups. The reviews presented here reveal the continuous nature of foraging strategies in lizards and snakes, providing the reader with an up-to-date review of the field, and will equip researchers with new insights and future directions for the sit-and-wait vs. wide foraging paradigm.

 

http://www.cambridge.org/us/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=0521833582

Also available from Amazon

 


Reilly Lab Graduates  

Mike Jorgensen-  mjorgensen@rvu.edu

Website: http://www.rvu.edu/faculty/mike-jorgensen-phd/

Ph.D. Ohio University 2008 

Assistant Professor of Anatomy, Rocky Vista University, Parker Colorado 

Director, Anatomy Fellowship

   Mike works on axial function, development and evolution in frogs.  His research focuses on morphometrics and large scale sampling to study variation in the amphibian skeleton and the timing of ossification sequences in amphibians and their utility in the analysis of heterochony in vertebrates.  

Eric McElroy-  McelroyE@cofc.edu

Website: http://mcelroye.people.cofc.edu/index/Home.html

Ph.D. Ohio University 2008 

Associate Professor, Assistant Chair, Department of Biology, College of Charleston.

   Eric works on thevolution and ecology of animal performance and functional morphology. Current foci include the functional ecology of locomotor performance in lizards, the biology of introduced Texas horned lizards in South Carolina,  the effects of parasites on swimming performance, behavior and physiology in estuarine fishes, and variation in growth rate in diamondback terrapins.

Lance McBrayer-     lancemcbrayer@georgiasouthern.edu

Website:  https://sites.google.com/a/georgiasouthern.edu/lance-mcbrayer/

Ph.D. Ohio University 2002

Professor, Curator of Herpetology, Associate Dean of Faculty & Research Programs

Georgia Southern University

   Lance works on the ecology and evolution of the feeding in lizards.  His research focuses on the ecology and evolution of lizards. His research integrates morphological, ecological, and behavioral analyses to understand how organisms cope with ecological challenges and how key traits evolve. The general lab focus on traits related to locomotion and feeding.

Pete Larson http://runblogger.com/2010/05/contact-runblogger-e-mail-and-social.html

Website:  http://runblogger.com/

Ph.D.  Ohio University 2003

   For a few years Pete continued his work on morphometric patterns of the skulls of tadpoles at St. Anselm COllege (2003-9) but his work turned to the biomechanics of human running. As Pete developed a greater interest in running science, he moved into the study of running shoes and running form and gait and he started the website Runblogger to convey that passion and published Tread Lightly: Form, Footwear, and the Quest for Injury Free Running 

Rick Essner-     ressner@siue.edu

Website:    https://www.siue.edu/artsandsciences/biologicalsciences/faculty-staff/faculty-pages/essner.shtml

Ph.D. Ohio University 2003

Associate Professor, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville

  Ricks interests are in vertebrate functional and ecological morphology, especially the evolution of locomotor novelty.  He combines functional morphology with behavioral, ecological, and physiological research to quantify the locomotor form-function complex. He is currently studying locomotion in frogs by quantifying morphological, functional and behavioral patterns in basal (leiopelmatid) and derived (lalagobatrachian) frog taxa to understand the evolution of frog jumping.  He is also interested in wildlife and conservation biology. 

 


Teaching & Sample Course Syllabi

Bios 3030/5030 - Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy (Spring)

Bios 2750 - Animal Ecology (Fall)

Bios 3880 - Undergraduate Research & Inquiry & Analysis in Ecology & Evolution (Spring)

Bios 4030 - Teaching Vertebrate Anatomy (Spring)

Bios 7000 - Colloquium in Ecology and Evolution

 


 

 

 

 

Publications (Green co-authors are undergraduates):

1. 1982a. Reilly, S. M. Ecology of Chameleo schubotzi from Mount Kenya. J. Herpetol. Soc. Africa. 28:1-3.

2. 1982b. Hebrard, J. J., S. M. Reilly, and M. Guppy. Thermal ecology of Chameleo hohneli and Mabuya varia in the Aberdare Mountains: constraints on heterothermy in an alpine environment. J.E. Afr. Nat. Hist. Soc. Natl. Mus. Kenya. No. 176:1-6.

3. 1983a. Reilly, S. M. The biology of the high altitude salamander Batrachuperus mustersi from Afghanistan. J. Herpetol. 17:1-9.

4. 1983b. Reilly, S. M. Attempts to induce captive breeding in Batrachuperus mustersi. Bull. Chicago Herpetol. Soc. 18:12-14.

5. 1983c. Reilly, S. M. Sternotherus odoratus: Algal Relationships. SSAR Herp. Review. 14:76.

6. 1986. Reilly, S. M. Ontogeny of cranial ossification in the eastern newt, Notophthalmus viridescens (Caudata: Salamandridae), and its relationship to metamorphosis and neoteny. J. Morphol. 188:315-326.

7. 1987a. Reilly, S. M. Ontogeny of the hyobranchial apparatus in the salamanders Ambystoma talpoideum (Ambystomatidae) and Notophthalmus viridescens (Salamandridae): the ecological morphology of two neotenic strategies. J. Morphol. 191:205-214.

8. 1987b. Reilly, S. M. Paradactylodon: a junior synonym for Batrachuperus. Amphibia-Reptilia. 8:283-284.

9. 1987c. Reilly, S.M. An interview with Sir David Attenborough. Papyrus 1:1-18.

10. 1988a. Reilly, S. M. and G. V. Lauder. Ontogeny of aquatic feeding performance in the eastern newt (Notophthalmus viridescens: Salamandridae). Copeia. 1988:87-91.

11. 1988b. Reilly, S. M. and G. V. Lauder. Atavisms and the homology of hyobranchial elements in lower vertebrates. J. Morphol. 195:237-245.

12. 1988c. Lauder, G. V. and S. M. Reilly. Functional design of the feeding mechanism in salamanders: causal bases of ontogenetic changes in function. J. Exp. Biol. 134:219-233.

13. 1989a. Reilly, S. M. and G. V. Lauder. Physiological bases of feeding behaviour in salamanders: Do motor patterns vary with prey type? J. Exp. Biol. 141:343-358.

14. 1989b. Reilly, S. M. and G. V. Lauder. Kinetics of tongue projection in Ambystoma tigrinum: Quantitative kinematics, muscle function, evolutionary hypotheses. J. Morphol. 199:223-243.

15. 1989c. Reilly, S. M. Balance in Science (letter). Science 245:1032.

16. 1989d. Wainwright, P. C., C. P. Sanford, S. M. Reilly, and G. V. Lauder. The evolution of motor patterns: aquatic feeding in salamanders and ray-finned fishes. Brain Behav. Evol. 34:329-341.

17. 1990a. Reilly, S. M. Biochemical systematics and evolution in the eastern North American newts, genus Notophthalmus (Caudata: Salamandridae). Herpetologica 46:51-59.

18. 1990b. Reilly, S. M. Comparative ontogeny of cranial shape in salamanders using Resistant Fit Theta Rho analysis. In: Proceedings of the Michigan Morphometrics Workshop. F. J. Rohlf and F. L. Bookstein (eds). University of Michigan Press.

19. 1990c. Lauder, G. V. and S. M. Reilly. Metamorphosis of the feeding mechanism in tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum). J. Zool. Lond. 222:59-74.

20. 1990d. Reilly, S. M. and G. V. Lauder. Evolution of tetrapod feeding behavior: kinematic homologies in prey transport. Evolution 44:1542-1557.

21. 1990e. Reilly, S. M. and G. V. Lauder. Metamorphosis of cranial design in the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum): A morphometric analysis of ontogenetic change. J. Morph. 204:121-137.

22. 1990f. Jayne, B. C., S. M. Reilly, P. C. Wainwright, and G. V. Lauder. The effect of sampling rate on the analysis of digital electromyograms from vertebrate muscle. J. Exp. Biol. 154:557-565.

23. 1990g. Reilly, S. M. and G. V. Lauder. The strike of the salamander: quantitative kinematics and muscle function during prey capture. J. Comp. Physiol. A. 167:827-839.

24. 1991a. Ashley, M. A., S. M. Reilly and G. V. Lauder. Ontogenetic scaling of hind limb development in Ambystoma tigrinum. Copeia. 1991:767-776.

25. 1991b. Reilly, S. M. The Snakes of Iran (review). Copeia 1991:1149-1150.

26. 1991c. Reilly, S. M. and G. V. Lauder. Prey transport in the tiger salamander: quantitative electromyography and muscle function in tetrapods. J. Exp. Zool. 260:1-17.

27. 1991d. Reilly, S. M. Evolutionary Innovations (review). Quart. Rev. Biol. 66:488.

28. 1991e. Reilly, S. M. and G. V. Lauder. Experimental morphology of the feeding mechanism in salamanders. J. Morph. 210:33-44.

29. 1992a. Reilly, S. M., G. V. Lauder and J. P. Collins. Performance consequences of trophic polymorphism: feeding behavior in typical and cannibal phenotypes of Ambystoma tigrinum. Copeia 1992:672-679.

30. 1992b. Reilly, S. M. and G. V. Lauder. Morphology, behavior and evolution: comparative kinematics of aquatic feeding in salamanders. Brain Behav. Evol. 40:182-196.

31. 1994a. Wainwright, P.C. and S.M. Reilly. Introduction to Ecological Morphology. Pp. 1-9. In: Ecological Morphology: Integrative Approaches in Organismal Biology. P. C. Wainwright and S. M. Reilly (eds). University of Chicago Press.

32. 1994b. Reilly, S. M. The ecological morphology of metamorphosis: Heterochrony and the evolution of feeding mechanisms in salamanders. Pp. 319-338. In: Ecological Morphology: Integrative Approaches in Organismal Biology. P. C. Wainwright and S. M. Reilly (eds). University of Chicago Press.

33. 1994c. Reilly, S. M. and P.C. Wainwright. Ecological morphology and the power of integration. Pp. 339-354. In: Ecological Morphology: Integrative Approaches in Organismal Biology. P. C. Wainwright and S. M. Reilly (eds). University of Chicago Press.

34. 1994d. Wainwright, P.C. and S.M. Reilly (eds). Ecological Morphology: Integrative Approaches in Organismal Biology. 367 p. University of Chicago Press.

35. 1994e. Reilly, S.M. and R.A. Brandon. Partial Paedomorphosis in the Mexican stream salamanders and the taxonomic status of the genus Rhyacosiredon. Copeia 1994: 656-662.

36. 1994f. Reilly, S. M. and G. V. Lauder. Amphibian feeding behavior: comparative biomechanics and evolution. Pp. 163-195. In: Advances in comparative and environmental physiology, Vol. 18. R. Gilles (ed). (Springer Verlag).

37. 1995a. Reilly, S. M. The ontogeny of aquatic feeding behavior in Salamandra salamandra: stereotypy and isometry in feeding kinematics. J. Exp. Biol. 198:701-708.

38. 1995b. Reilly, S.M. Quantitative electromyography and muscle function of the hindlimb during lococmotion in the lizard Sceloporus clarki. Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems. 98:278-297.

39. 1995c. Vallejo, M. J., S. Reilly, R. Pyles, and M. White. Genetic variation within and across a stream in Desmognathus. Allozyme Bulletin. 28:51.

40. 1996a. Reilly, S.M. and R.A. Altig. Cranial ontogeny in Siren intermedia (Amphibia: Sirenidae): Paedomorphic, metamorphic, and novel patterns of heterochrony. Copeia 1996:29-41.

41. 1996b. Lauder, G. V. and S. M. Reilly. The mechanistic bases of behavioral evolution: a multivariate analysis of musculoskeletal function. In E. Martins (ed) Phylogenies and the Comparative Method in Animal Behavior. pp. 104-137. Cambridge: Oxford Univ. Press.

42. 1996c. Reilly, S. M. The metamorphosis of feeding kinematics in Salamandra salamandra and the evolution of terrestrial feeding behavior. J. Exp. Biol. 199:1219-1227.

43. 1997a. Reilly, S.M., E.O. Wiley, and D. Meinhardt. An integrative approach to heterochrony: distinguishing intraspecific and interspecific phenomena. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 60:119-143.

44. 1997b. Reilly, S.M. and M. L. DeLancey. Sprawling locomotion in the lizard Sceloporus clarkii: quantitative kinematics of a walking trot. J. Exp. Biol. 200:753-765.

45. 1997c. Reilly, S.M. and M. L. DeLancey. Sprawling locomotion in the lizard Sceloporus clarkii: the effects of speed on gait, hindlimb kinematics, and axial bending during walking. J. Zool. Lond. 243:417-433.

46. 1998. Reilly, S.M. Sprawling locomotion in the lizard Sceloporus clarkii: speed modulation of motor patterns in a walking trot. Brain Behav. Evol. 52:126-138.

47. 1998. Reilly, S.M. and J.A. Elias. Locomotion in Alligator mississippiensis: kinematic effects of speed and posture and their relevance to the sprawling to erect paradigm. J. Exp. Biol. 201:1559-1574.

48. 1998. Shapes of Time. The Evolution of Growth and Development (Review). American Zoologist. 38:988-989.

49. 2000. Reilly, S.M. Locomotion in the Quail (Coturnix japonica): The Kinematics of Walking and Increasing Speed. Journal of Morphology. Journal of Morphology. 243:173-185.

50. 2000. Elias, J.A., McBrayer, L.D. and S.M. Reilly. Prey transport kinematics in Tupinambis teguixin and Varanus exanthematicus: conservation of feeding behavior in "chemosensory tongued" lizards. J. Exp. Biol. 203:791-801.

51. 2000. White, MM, Vallejo, F, and S.M. Reilly. Fine scale genetic differentiation in the Carolina Mountain Dusky salamander, Desmognathus carolinenesis. J. Herpetol. 34:298-302.

52. 2001. S.M. Reilly, L. D. McBrayer, and T. D. White.  Prey processing in amniotes: biomechanical and behavioral patterns of food reduction. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Part A. 128:397-415.

53. 2002. S.M. Reilly.  Neoteny  (encyclopedia entry). Encyclopedia of Evolution, Oxford University Press, pp. 814-815.

54. 2002. S.M. Reilly.  Paedomorphosis  (encyclopedia entry). Encyclopedia of Evolution, Oxford University Press, pp. 853-854..

55. 2002 McBrayer, L.D. and S.M. Reilly. Testing amniote models of prey transport kinematics: a quantitative analysis of mouth opening patterns in lizards. Zoology (Jena). 105:71-81.

56. 2002. McBrayer, L.D. and S.M. Reilly. Prey processing in lizards: behavioural variation in sit-and-wait and widely foraging taxa.  Can. J. Zool. 80:882-892.

57. 2003.  Reilly, S.M. and A.R. Biknevicius. Integrating Kinetic and Kinematic Approaches to the Analysis of Terrestrial Locomotion. (In Vertebrate Biomechanics and Evolution,(V.L. Bels, J.P. Gasc, and A. Casinos, eds), et al. Oxford: BIOS Scientific Publishers).

58. 2003.  Larson, P. M. and S.M. Reilly. Functional morphology of feeding and gill irrigation in the anuran tadpole: Electromyography and muscle function in larval Rana catesbeiana.  Journal of Morphology. 255:202-214.

59. 2003. Reilly, S.M. and T.D. White. Hypaxial motor patterns and the function of epipubic bones in primitive mammals.  Science 299:400-403.

60. 2003. Parchman, A.J. Reilly, S. M. and A.R. Biknevicius.  Whole-body mechanics and gaits in the gray short-tailed opossum, Monodelphis domestica: integrating patterns of locomotion in a semi-erect mammal. J. Exp. Biol. 206:1379-1388.

61. 2003. Reilly, S.M. and R.W. Blob. Motor control of locomotor hindlimb posture in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).  J. Exp. Biol. 206: 4327-4340. 

62. 2004. Willey, J.S., Biknevicius, A.R., Reilly, S.M. and K.D. Earls. The tale of the tail: limb function and locomotor mechanics in Alligator mississippiensis.  J. Exp. Biol. 207:553-563.

63. 2005. Reilly, S.M., Willey, J.S., Biknevicius, A.R. and Blob, R.W.  Locomotor dynamics in a semi-erect posture: integrating movements, motor patterns, ground reaction forces and bone strains of hindlimb locomotion in the alligator. J. Exp. Biol. 208:993-1009.

64. 2006.  S.M. Reilly, E.J. McElroy, R.A. Odum and V.A. Hornyak. Tuataras and salamanders show that walking and running mechanics are ancient features of tetrapod locomotion.  Proc. R. Soc. B 273:1563-1568.

65. 2006. Biknevicius, A.R. and Reilly, S.M.  Correlation of symmetrical gaits and whole body mechanics: debunking myths in locomotor biodynamics. J. Exp. Zool. 305: 923-934.

66. 2007. McElroy, E.J., J.J. Meyers, S.M. Reilly, D.J. Irschick.  Dissecting the effects of behaviour and habitat on the locomotion of a lizard, Urosaurus ornatus.  Animal Behaviour  73:359-365.

67. 2007. Reilly, S.M., L.D. McBrayer and D. B. Miles.  Lizard Ecology: The evolutionary consequences of foraging mode.  Cambridge University Press.

68. 2007. Reilly, S.M., L.D. McBrayer and D. B. Miles.  Foreward. In Lizard Ecology: the evolutionary consequences of foraging mode  Cambridge University Press.

69. 2007. McBrayer, L.D., Miles, D. B.and S.M. Reilly.  The evolution of the foraging mode paradigm in lizard ecology. In Lizard Ecology: the evolutionary consequences of foraging mode .  Cambridge University Press .

70. 2007. Reilly, S.M. and L.D. McBrayer.  Prey capture and prey processing behavior and the evolution of lingual and sensory characteristics: divergences and convergences in lizard feeding biology. In Lizard Ecology: the evolutionary consequences of foraging mode.  Cambridge University Press.

71. 2007. Reilly, S.M., McElroy, E.J and A.R. Biknevicius. Posture, gait and ecological relevance of locomotor costs and energy saving mechanisms in tetrapods.  Zoology. 110:271-289.

72. 2008. McElroy, E.J., K.L. Hickey and S.M. Reilly.  The coevolution of biomechanics, gait and foraging mode in lizards. J. Exp. Biol. 211:1029-1040.

73. 2009.  Reilly, S.M. and White T.D.  Breathing with your belly: Abdominal exhalation, loco-ventilatory integration and size constraints on locomotion in small mammals. Zoology 112:161-168.

74. 2009. Reilly, S.M., E.J. McElroy, T.D. White.  Abdominal muscle function in ventilation and locomotion in new world opossums and basal eutherians: Breathing and running with and without epipubic bones. J. Morphol. 270:1014-1028.

75. 2009. McElroy, E.J. and S.M. Reilly. The relationship between limb morphology, kinematics and force during running: the evolution of locomotor dynamics in lizards.  Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 97:634–651.

76. 2010. Reilly, S.M., E.J. McElroy, T.D. White, and M.B. Bennett.  Abdominal muscle and epipubic bone function during locomotion in Australian possums: Insights to basal mammalian conditions and eutherian-like tendencies in Trichosurus.   J. Morphol. 271:438-450.

77. 2010. Essner, R.L.,  Jr., Suffian, D.J., Bishop, P.J. and S. M. Reilly. Landing in basal frogs: evidence of saltational patternsin the evolution of anuran locomotion. Naturwissenschaften 97:935–939.

78. 2011. Reilly, S.M. and M.E. Jorgensen.  The evolution of jumping in frogs: Morphological evidence for the basal anuran locomotor condition and the radiation of locomotor systems in crown group anurans. J. Morphol. 272:149-168.  See supplemental videos of pelvic movements here.

79. 2011. Kljuno, E. Zhu, J.J., Williams, R.L., and Reilly, S.M. A biomimetic elastic cable driven quadruped robot - the robocat. Proc. ASME Int. Mechan. Eng. Cong. Exp. IMECE2011-63534, 1-11.

80. 2012. McElroy, E.J., McBrayer, L.D., Williams, S.C., Anderson, R.A., and Reilly, S.M. Sequential analysis of foraging behavior and attack speed in ambush and widely foraging lizards.  Adapt. Behav. 20:16-31.

81. 2013. Biknevicius A.R, Reilly S.M, McElroy E.J, Bennett M.B. Symmetrical gaits and center of mass mechanics in small-bodied, primitive mammals.  Zoology (Jena), 116:67-74.

82. 2013. Jorgensen, M.E. and Reilly, S.M. Phylogenetic patterns of skeletal morphometics and pelvic traits in frogs in relation to foraging mode. J. Evol. Biol. 26:929-43.

83. 2014. Essner, R.L., Jr. , Jorgensen, M.E., Ringer, B.W., Wright, S.J. and  Reilly, S.M.  An improved husbandry setup for cold-water amphibians. Bull Chicago Herp. Soc. 49:24-27.

84. 2014. McElroy, E. Wilson, R., Biknevicius, A. and Reilly, S.  A comparative study of single leg ground reaction forces in running lizards. J. Exp. Biol. 217:735-742.

85. 2015. Reilly, S., Montuelle, S., Essner, R., Schmidt, A., Halsey, L., Jorgensen, M., and Naylor, E. Conquering the world in leaps and bounds:  hopping locomotion in toads is actually bounding. Funct. Ecol. 29:1308-1316. 

86. 2015. Reilly, S.M., Essner, R. Jr., Wren, S., Easton, L., and Bishop, P.J. Movement patterns in leiopelmatid frogs: Insights into the locomotor repertoire of basal anurans. Behav. Proc. 121: 43–53.

87. 2015. Essner, R.L.,Jr., Patel, R., Reilly, S.M. Ontogeny of Body Shape and Diet in Freshwater Drum (Aplodinotus grunniens). Trans. Illinois State Acad. Sci. 107: 27-30.

88. 2016. Reilly, S.M., Montuelle, S.J., Schmidt, A., Krause, E. Naylor, E., and Essner, R. L., Jr. Functional evolution of jumping in frogs: interspecific differences in take-off and landing. J. Morphol. 277:379-393.

89. 2016. Biknevicius, A.R., Reilly, S.M., and Kljuno, E.  Locomotion in small tetrapods: size-based limitations to “universal rules” in locomotion. Pp. 251-276, In: Understanding Mammalian Locomotion: Concepts and Applications (ed. Bertram J.E.A). John Wiley & Sons Inc. ISBN-10: 0470454644.  

90. 2016. Reilly, S.M., Montuelle, S.J., Schmidt, A., Krause, C., Naylor, E., Jorgensen, M.E., Essner, R.L. Jr.  Pelvic function in anuran jumping: Interspecific differences in the kinematics and motor control of the iliosacral articulation during take-off and landing.  J. Morphol. 277: 1559-1558.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


The FROG TEAM In New Zealand

FROG TEAM DOING THE HAKA

Pictures of my fitness (i.e. kids):

 

Alexander Graduates from OU Mechanical Engineering (2015).... Lucas working on photojournalism contemplating one of his award winning photos.

 

The family on what is left of the Tasman Glacier (2014).

 

 

Alexander - on Bethels Beach, North Island, New Zealand (2014).            Lucas flying "high" he left his collar bone on Signal Hill, Dunedin, New Zealand.

Surfing on Straddie  (2007)                                      Athens  2013            

 

on Fox Glacier.... its gone now!