Lawrence M. Witmer, PhD
Professor of Anatomy
Chang Ying-Chien Professor of Paleontology
OU Presidential Research Scholar 2004-2009

Dept. of Biomedical Sciences
Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine
Life Science Building, Rm 123
Ohio University
Athens, Ohio 45701 USA



Majungasaurus main



Endocast & inner ear



3D Visualization

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Cranial Endocast & Inner Ear of Majungasaurus

Acrobat 3D PDFs

View our mini-tutorial!


• These interactive visualizations are in PDF format and were generated from Adobe Acrobat 3D, which is a relatively new program that permits the use of interactive 3D content in the widely available and familiar PDF format.

To use these files, you will need to have an updated version of Acrobat Reader, which can be downloaded for free! It's worth the time to download the latest Reader, not just to access the new 3D capability but also simply to have the most current version of the Reader—it is, after at, the same Reader used for conventional PDFs, but now with interactive 3D functionality.

• Each 3D PDF is provided in three files sizes. Larger files provide more detail but take longer to download and require a more powerful computer. Smaller files are blockier but easier to manipulate.

• Clicking on the links below will launch the 3D PDF in its own window. If you don't have the most up-to-date Acrobat Reader or it's not set in your web browser as the default for opening PDFs, then you might get an error message. Check the mini-tutorial for help troubleshooting the problem.

Large file — endocast, inner ear, etc. (15.7 MB)
Medium file — endocast, inner ear, etc. (8.7 MB)
Small file — endocast, inner ear, etc. (3.9 MB)
* Note: The braincase of FMNH PR 2100 was rescanned in October 2006 at O'Bleness Memorial Hospital in Athens, OH, on a GE LightSpeed Ultra at a slice thickness of 625 microns and using the Extended Hounsfield option and bow-tie filter. These scan data are somewhat better that those used for the published article, and are the data from which the movies and Acrobat 3D files presented here were made. Likewise, the CT scan data hosted here are the October 2006 data. The new data fully support the findings published in the article, but provide higher resolution and hence better views.
This website provides supplementary information as an adjunct to the published paper. Witmer, with the skilled assistance of Ryan Ridgely, is responsible for the content of the website. Content provided here is for educational and research purposes only, and may not be used for any commercial purpose without the permission of L. M. Witmer and other relevant parties.


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Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine
Irvine Hall, Athens, Ohio 45701
740-593-2530 740-597-2778 fax

Last updated: 11/19/2015