Lawrence M. Witmer, PhD
Professor of Anatomy
Chang Professor of Paleontology

Dept. of Biomedical Sciences
Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine
Life Science Building, Rm 123
Ohio University
Athens, Ohio 45701 USA

Email: witmerL@ohio.edu

 

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Curriculum Vitae
 

Lawrence M. Witmer, PhD

Department of Biomedical Sciences
Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine
Ohio University
Athens, Ohio  45701  USA
Telephone: (740) 591-7712

E-mail: witmerL@ohiou.edu
personal
website: http://www.ohio.edu/people/witmerl/
WitmerLab website: http://www.ohio.edu/witmerlab
WitmerLab YouTube website: http://www.youtube.com/witmerlab
WitmerLab Facebook website: http://www.facebook.com/witmerlab
WitmerLab Sketchfab: https://sketchfab.com/witmerlab
WitmerLab Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/witmerlab/
WitmerLab Twitter (@WitmerLab): https://twitter.com/WitmerLab
WitmerLab Pick-and-Scalpel blog: http://witmerlab.wordpress.com/
OUµCT website: https://www.ohio.edu/medicine/research/facilities/microct-scanner/

Personal Information

Born: 10 October 1959, Rochester, New York
Marital Status: Married to Patricia Lynn Morris Witmer
Children: Samuel H. Witmer, born 1993
Citizenship: United States of America

Optimus Prime spoke my name (voice actor Peter Cullen narrated a National Geographic documentary on which I appeared)

Education

1992    PhD, Cell Biology and Anatomy (Functional Anatomy and Evolution), The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.  Dissertation: Ontogeny, Phylogeny, and Air Sacs: The Importance of Soft-tissue Inferences in the Interpretation of Facial Evolution in Archosauria.

1987    MA, Systematics and Ecology (Evolutionary Biology and Vertebrate Paleontology), The University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas.  Thesis: The Cranial Air Sac System of Mesozoic Birds.

1982    BA, Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York.

Once played a guitar that had previously been played by Eric Clapton

Present Status

Professor, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine, Ohio University (since July 2005; Associate Professor from 2001–2005; Assistant Professor from 1995–2001)

Chang Ying-Chien Endowed Professorship of Paleontology 2007 – present

Ohio University Presidential Research Scholar (Biomedical & Life Sciences) 2004–2009

Adjunct Professor, Department of Geological Sciences, Ohio University (since November 1998)

Billions and billions of photons passed directly from Carl Sagan to my retina (I used to see him walking around campus when I was a Cornell undergrad).

Other Professional Experience

2015 – present     Member, Editorial Board of MorphoMuseumM, an open-access scientific journal

2013 – present     Chair, Scientific Program Committee, International Society of Vertebrate Morphology

2012 – present     Chair, Ohio University Council on Research, Scholarship, and Creative Activity (CRSCA), member since 2006

2011 – present     Member, Scientific Affairs Committee, American Association of Anatomists

2011 – 2013        Chair, Curriculum Advisory Committee, Ohio University Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine, member since 2008, chair since 2011

2009 – present     Director of Anatomical Resources, Ohio University Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine

2007 – present     President, International Society of Vertebrate Morphology (President-Elect 2007–2010, President 2010–2013, Past-President 2013–2016)

2006 – present     Director, Ohio University MicroCT Scanning Facility (OUµCT)

2006 – present     Member, Ohio Center for Ecology and Evolutionary Studies Advisory Committee

2004 – 2011        Basic Science Liaison, Otorhinolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery Residency Program Advisory Committee, Ohio University Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine

2002 – 2012        Society of Vertebrate Paleontology Lanzendorf Paleoart Prize Committee, Member since 2002, Chair 2004–2006, 2008–2010

2001 – 2005        Research and Scholarly Affairs Committee, Ohio University Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine  

2001 – 2003         Advisory Committee, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Ohio University Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine  

1999 – 2004         Basic Science Liaison, Pediatrics Residency Program Advisory Committee, Ohio University Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine

1999 – 2001         Director, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Focus Group, Ohio University

1997 – present      Basic Science Liaison, General Surgery Residency Program Advisory Committee, Ohio University Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine

1995 – present      Coordinator of PCC Gross Anatomical Instruction, Ohio University Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine

1995 – present      Member, PCC Steering Committee, Ohio University Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine

1995 – present      Member, Board of Editors, Ohio Research and Clinical Review, Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine

1995 – 2001         Member, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Graduate Steering Committee, College of Arts and Sciences

1994 – present      Member and Chair (1994–1998) Society of Vertebrate Paleontology Honorary Membership  Committee

1994 – 1995         Course Director: Human Gross Anatomy and Embryology, New York College of Osteopathic Medicine  

1992 – 1995         Assistant Professor, Department of Anatomy, New York  College of Osteopathic Medicine, Old Westbury, New York

Saw Star Wars in the theater on opening day, May 25, 1977

Completed Students Advised & Theses

(* indicates Witmer was main advisor, otherwise Witmer was committee member)

2016 * Ashley C. Morhardt (Ohio University)—PhD: “Gross Anatomical Brain Region Approximation (GABRA): assessing brain size, structure, and evolution in extinct archosaurs.” Current status: Postdoctoral fellow in Neuroscience at the Washington University School of Medicine

2015    *Jason Bourke (Ohio University)—PhD: “Implications of airflow dynamics and soft-tissue reconstructions for the heat exchange potential of dinosaur nasal passages.” Current status: Postdoctoral fellow at the North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences, Raleigh, NC.

2015    *Wm. Ruger Porter (Ohio University)—PhD: “Physiological implications of dinosaur cephalic vascular systems.” Current status: Lecturer in Anatomical Sciences, OU Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine

2015    Ryan N. Felice (Ohio University)—PhD: “Evolution and integration of avian caudal skeletal morphology.” Current status: Postdoctoral fellow at University College London with Anjali Goswami.

2014    Jillian Davis (Ohio University)—PhD: “Functional morphology of mastication in musteloid carvivorans.” Current status: Assistant Professor, School of Health Sciences, High Point University.

2014   *Alexandra Spaw (Ohio University Honors Tutorial College)—BS Honors: “Fetal developmental anatomy of the human cardiovascular and central nervous systems using Lugol’s iodine staining and micro-computed tomography.” Current status: medical student at the Ohio State University College of Medicine.

2013   *Cheyenne A, Romick (Ohio University)—BS Honors: “Ontogeny of the brain endocasts of ostriches (Aves: Struthio camelus) with implications for interpreting extinct dinosaur endocasts.”

2012    *Joseph C. Daniel (Ohio University)—PhD: "Heads and skulls as sediment sorters: an actualistic, CT-based study in taphonomy." Current status: Gross anatomy instructor, Department of Neurobiology and Developmental Sciences, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences.

2011   Eric Snively (Ohio University)—MSc: “Rigid body mechanics of prey capture in large carnivorous dinosaurs.” Current status: Postdoctoral researcher, WitmerLab at Ohio University

2011   Jeri C. Rodgers (University of Texas at Austin)—PhD: “Comparative morphology of the vestibular semicircular canals in therian mammals.” Current status: Research Assistant, Vertebrate Paleontology Laboratory, University of Texas at Austin

2011    *David L. Dufeau (Ohio University)—PhD: “The evolution of cranial pneumaticity in Archosauria: patterns of paratympanic sinus development.” Current status: Gross anatomy instructor, Department of Pathology and Anatomical Sciences, University of Missouri

2010    *Amy R. Martiny (Ohio University)—MA (Sociology): “Death Etiquette: medical student socialization during their first cadaver interaction and the impact of death anxiety.” 

2009   *Tobin L. Hieronymus (Ohio University)—PhD: “Osteological correlates of cephalic skin structures in Amniota: documenting the evolution of display and feeding structures with fossil data.” Current status: Assistant Professor at NEOUCOM.

2009   Michael L. Farrell (Ohio University)—MS: “Fully automatic upper airway segmentation and surfacing on the GPU from cone-beam CT volumes.” Current status: industry.

2008    *Takanobu Tsuihiji (Ohio University)—Postdoctoral Fellow (Japan Society for the Promotion of Science): “Anatomical evolution at the cranio-cervical interface in Archosauromorpha (Reptilia, Diapsida), with an emphasis on Dinosauria.” Current status: National Museum of Nature and Science, Tokyo.

2007   *Justin Tickhill (Ohio University)—MS: “The Virtual Pig Head: digital imaging of cephalic anatomy.” Current status: Community college teacher, Phoenix, Arizona. 

2006   *Casey M. Holliday (Ohio University)—PhD: “Evolution and function of the jaw musculature and adductor chamber of archosaurs (crocodilians, dinosaurs, and birds).” Current status: Assistant Professor, Department of Pathology and Anatomical Sciences, University of Missouri

2004   Andrew Lammers (Ohio University)—PhD: “The biodynamics of arboreal locomotion in the gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica).” Current status: Associate Professor, Cleveland State University.

2003   *Andrew B. Clifford (Ohio University)—MS: “Narial novelty in mammals: case studies and rules of construction” Witmer lab 2001–2003.  Current status: Brown University, PhD student.

2003   Phil Senter (Northern Illinois University)—PhD: “Taxon sampling artifacts and the phylogenetic position of Aves.”  Current status: Assistant Professor, Lamar State College-Orange, Texas

2003   Richard Essner (Ohio University)—PhD: “Locomotion, morphology, and habitat use in arboreal squirrels (Rodentia: Sciuridae)”  Current status: University of Pennsylvania, Assistant Professor, Southern Illinois University.

2003   Peter M. Larson (Ohio University)—PhD: “Chondrocranial evolution in Rana tadpoles: integrating form, function, ontogeny, and phylogeny”  Current status: Assistant Professor, St. Anselm College, NH.

2003   Patrick M. O’Connor (SUNY Stony Brook): “Pulmonary pneumaticity in extant birds and fossil archosaurs” Witmer lab 2000–2002.  Current status: Associate Professor, Ohio University Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine

2002   *Jayc C. Sedlmayr (Ohio University)—PhD: “Anatomy, evolution, and functional significance of cephalic vasculature in Archosauria.” Witmer lab 1997–2002.  Current status: Assistant Professor, Dept. of Cell Biology & Anatomy, LSU School of Medicine, New Orleans

2001    Ruxandra Marinescu (Ohio University)—MS: “Comparison of image generation and processing techniques for 3D reconstruction of the human skull.” Current status: University of Florida PhD student.

2001   Jeffrey S. Willey (Ohio University)—MS: “Mechanics of the semi-erect posture: Limb function and whole body mechanics in Alligator mississippiensis.” Current status: Clemson University, PhD student.

2001   Elicia N. Thompson (Ohio University)—MS: “A morphometrics and kinetic analysis of the development of the feeding apparatus of Monodelphis domestica.”  Current status: dentistry student, University of Washington

2000   *Andrew B. Clifford (Ohio University)—BS Honors: “The narial anatomy of hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) with respect to other Carnivora.” Witmer lab 1999–2000.  Current status: Brown University, PhD student.

2000   *Michael J. Papp (Ohio University)—MS: “A critical appraisal of buccal soft-tissue anatomy in ornithischian dinosaurs.”  Witmer lab 1996–2000.  Current status: Associate Geologist at Parsons Engineering Science in Cincinnati, Ohio.

 

Current WitmerLab Students and Staff

• Ryan Ridgely, Research Associate and chief Witmer collaborator. 2000 – present.

• Wm. Ruger Porter, PhD. Postdoctoral researcher. 2008 – present. Physiological and behavioral implications of archosaur vascular systems.

• Donald Cerio, Doctoral student. 2012 – present. “Functional evolution of the eye, visual system, and orbital region in Archosauria.”

• Catherine Early, Doctoral student. 2013 – present. “Implications of avian brain endocast morphology on anatomy, development, and behavior.”

• James Nassif, Doctoral student. 2015 – present. TBA.

  

Professional Society Memberships

Sigma Xi
Society of Vertebrate Paleontology  
American Association of Anatomists

International Society of Vertebrate Morphology
Society of Integrative and Comparative Biology
American Association for the Advancement of Science

   

Competitive Grants and Awards

2015    National Science Foundation: “Collaborative Research: Dinosaur jaw muscle evolution and the origins of avian cranial kinesis” with R. C. Ridgley (Witmer senior PI on OU side). Collaborative project with University of Missouri (lead institution) & University of Southern Indiana; total project budget $965,031. 2015–2018. OU budget $265,481.00.

2013    Ohio University 1804 Award: “Enhancing 3D imaging research at Ohio University: acquisition of a microCT scanner to replace and upgrade current capabilities” with L. Liu and S. Hooper (Witmer senior PI). 2013–2015. $75,000.00.

2011    National Science Foundation: “Toward the Visible Dinosaur: Integrating anatomical systems to test inferences of function, physiology, and behavior, with special emphasis on broader impacts and outreach” with R. C. Ridgley (Witmer senior PI). 2011–2014. $350,500.00.

2009   National Science Foundation: “Extension for Special Creativity: Brain evolution in archosaurs: new implications for scaling, function and the evolution of the modern conditions in birds and crocodilians” with R. C. Ridgley (Witmer senior PI). $180,000.00.

2009    Ministry of Education and Science, Spain: “Using 3D technologies to investigate the palaeoneurology of sauropod dinosaurs” with F. Knoll (PI) and D. Schwarz-Wings. Witmer is a Project Collaborator. 75,000 €

2007    National Environment Research Council, UK (NERC): “Correlations between form, function and behaviour: the inner ears of birds and reptiles” with P. Barrett and A. Milner (London PIs), and G. Manley (Munich Project Partner). Witmer is Project Partner. £58,604.00.

2007    National Geographic Society: “Skull biomechanics of the first modern crocodilian, Isisfordia duncani” with S. Salisbury (Queensland, Australia, PI), E. Rayfield and S. Pierce (UK). Witmer is Project Personnel (as are all participants). $6950.00.

2005   National Science Foundation: “Brain evolution in archosaurs: new implications for scaling, function and the evolution of the modern conditions in birds and crocodilians” with G. R. Hurlburt and R. C. Ridgley (Witmer senior PI). $171,262.00.

2004   National Science Foundation: “The ear regions of archosaurs: the transition to the modern avian and crocodilian conditions and functional implications for hearing and balance in dinosaurs.” $280,293.00.

2004  National Science Foundation: “Evolution of the jaw musculature of archosaurs.” Dissertation Improvement Grant for Casey M. Holliday, $11,028.00.

2003   Ohio University Baker Award: “Unusual nasal structures in dinosaurs and other vertebrates.” $11,719.00

2000    National Science Foundation: “Anatomy, evolution, and functional significance of cephalic vasculature in Archosauria, with special emphasis on birds, crocodilians, and nonavian dinosaurs.” Dissertation Improvement Grant for Jayc C. Sedlmayr, $9980.00

1997    The Dinosaur Society: for supplementary publication costs of a Memoir of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, $980.40

1996    National Science Foundation: “Unusual narial structures in dinosaurs and other vertebrates: a case study in the functional interpretation of anatomical novelty in the fossil record” with Scott D. Sampson, PhD, $180,000.00

1995    The Dinosaur Society: “New insight into Deinonychus, Tenontosaurus, and other dinosaurs from the Cloverly Formation (Lower Cretaceous) of south-central Montana” with W. Desmond Maxwell, PhD, $7225.00

1994    The Dinosaur Society: for publication costs of a Memoir of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, $8400.00

1991    National Science Foundation Dissertation Improvement Grant (NSF BSR 9112070): “The evolution of the skull and air sinuses in Archosauria”, $9885.00

1991    Grant-In-Aid of Research from Sigma Xi: “Evolution of the skull and air sinuses in crocodylians and other archosaurs: New evidence from Papua New Guinean crocodiles,” $545.00

1987-91Fellowship from the Lucille P. Markey Charitable Trust, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.

1990    Alexander Wetmore Award from the American Ornithologists’ Union: “Ontogeny, heterochrony, air sacs, and the evolution of the avian skull,” $1210.00

            Grant-In-Aid of Research from Sigma Xi: “Evolution of the skull and air sinuses in crocodylians and other archosaurs,” $489.00

1989    Marcia Brady Tucker Award from the American Ornithologists’ Union for travel to the 107th Stated Meeting of the American Ornithologists’ Union, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, August, $377.50

1985    Alexander Wetmore Award from the American Ornithologists’ Union: “The tympanicomandibular siphonial system: Implications for avian origins and systematics,” $870.00

   

Published Articles

 

94. Bailleul, A. M., L. M. Witmer, and C. M. Holliday. 2017. Cranial joint histology in the mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos): new insights on avian cranial kinesis. Journal of Anatomy.

93. Brusatte, S. L., A. Muir, M. T. Young, S. Walsh, L. Steel, and L. M. Witmer. 2016. The braincase and neurosensory anatomy of an Early Jurassic marine crocodylomorph: implications for crocodylian sinus evolution and sensory transitions. Anatomical Record 299:1511–1530. DOI: 10.1002/ar.2346. 

92. Porter, W. R. and L. M. Witmer. 2016. Avian cephalic vascular anatomy, sites of thermal exchange, and the rete ophthalmicum. Anatomical Record 299:1461–1486. doi:10.1002/ar.23375. 

91. Porter, W. R, J. C. Sedlmayr, and L. M. Witmer. 2016. Vascular patterns in the heads of crocodilians: blood vessels and sites of thermal exchange. Journal of Anatomy 229:1–25. doi: 10.1111/joa.12539

90. Stocker, M. R., S. J. Nesbitt, K. E. Criswell, W. G. Parker, L. M. Witmer, T. B. Rowe, R. C. Ridgely, and M. A. Brown. 2016. A dome-headed stem-archosaur exemplifies convergence among dinosaurs and their distant relatives. Current Biology 26:2674–2680. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2016.07.066.

89. Bourke, J. M., and L. M. Witmer. 2016. Nasal conchae function as aerodynamic baffles: Experimental computational fluid dynamic analysis in a turkey nose (Aves: Galliformes). Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology 234:32–46. 

88. Martínez, R. D. F., M. C. Lamanna, F. E. Novas, R. C. Ridgely, G. A. Casal, J. Martínez, J. R. Vita, and L. M. Witmer. 2016. A basal lithostrotian titanosaur (Dinosauria: Sauropoda) with a complete skull: Implications for the evolution and paleobiology of Titanosauria. PLoS ONE 11(4): e0151661. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0151661.

87. Gignac, P. M., N. J. Kley, J. A. Clarke, M. W. Colbert,  A. C. Morhardt, D. Cerio, I. N. Cost, P. G. Cox, J. D. Daza, C. M. Early, M. S. Echols, R. M. Henkelman, A. N. Herdina, C. M. Holliday, Z. Li, K. Mahlow, S. Merchant, J. Müller, C. P. Orsbon, D. J. Paluh. M. L. Thies, H. P. Tsai, and L. M. Witmer. 2016. Diffusible iodine-based contrast-enhanced computed tomography (diceCT): an emerging tool for rapid, high-resolution, 3-D imaging of metazoan soft tissues. Journal of Anatomy 228(6):889–909. doi: 10.1111/joa.12449.

86. O’Brien, H. D., P. M. Gignac, T. L. Hieronymus, and L. M. Witmer. 2016. A comparison of postnatal arterial patterns in a growth series of giraffe (Artiodactyla: Giraffa camelopardalis). PeerJ 4:e1696; DOI 10.7717/peerj.1696.
 Download a PDF of the article
 View a YouTube video of the adult skull and blood vessels

85. Porro, L. B., L. M. Witmer, and P. M. Barrett. 2015. Digital preparation and osteology of the skull of Lesothosaurus diagnosticus (Ornithischia: Dinosauria). PeerJ 3:e1494 https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.1494.
 Download a PDF of the article

84. Leahey, L. G., R. E. Molnar, K. Carpenter, L. M. Witmer, and S. W. Salisbury. 2015. Cranial osteology of the ankylosaurian dinosaur formerly known as Minmi sp. (Ornithischia: Thyreophora) from the Lower Cretaceous Allaru Mudstone of Richmond, Queensland, Australia. PeerJ 3:e1475. doi.org/10.7717/peerj.1475.
• Download a PDF of the article complete with the supplemental 3D PDF
 View a YouTube video of the skull, brain endocast, inner ear, and nasal structures
 View an annotated 3D interactive Sketchfab animation of the skull
 View a 3D interactive Sketchfab animation of the skull, brain endocast, inner ear, etc.

83. Porter, W. R. and L. M. Witmer. 2015. Vascular patterns in iguanas and other squamates: blood vessels and sites of thermal exchange. PLOS ONE 10(10): e0139215. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0139215.
 Download a PDF of the article complete with the supplemental 3D PDF
 
DICOM data download for five OUVC injected specimens on Dryad

82. Knoll, F., L. M. Witmer, R. C. Ridgely, F. Ortega, and J. L. Sanz. 2015. A new titanosaurian braincase from the Cretaceous “Lo Hueco” locality in Spain sheds light on neuroanatomical evolution within Titanosauria. PLOS ONE. 10(10): e0138233. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0138233.
 Download a PDF of the article complete with the supplemental 3D PDF

 DICOM data download on Dryad.

81. Balanoff, A. M., G. S. Bever, M. Colbert, J. A. Clark, D. Field, P. M. Gignac, D. T. Ksepka, R. C. Ridgely, N. A. Smith, C. Torres, S. Walsh, and L. M. Witmer. 2015. Best practices for digitally constructing endocranial casts: examples from birds and their dinosaurian relatives. Journal of Anatomy. doi: 10.1111/joa.12378.

80. Dufeau, D. L., and L. M. Witmer. 2015. Ontogeny of the middle-ear air-sinus system in Alligator mississippiensis (Archosauria: Crocodylia).  PLOS ONE 10(9): e0137060. doi:10.1371/journal. pone.0137060E.
 Download a PDF of the article complete with the supplemental 3D PDF
 
DICOM data download for OUVC 10606 on Dryad.
 Visit the updated Visible Interactive Alligator site

79. Sues, H.-D., A. O. Averianov, R. C. Ridgely, and L. M. Witmer. 2015. Titanosauria (Dinosauria, Sauropoda) from the Upper Cretaceous Bissekty Formation of Uzbekistan. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 35(1):e889145-1–e889145-14.
Download supplemental figures of the braincase and endocast
• Download a 3D PDF of the braincase, brain endocast, and labyrinth: small (5 MB), medium (16 MB), large (30 MB) Note: save 3D PDFs to your computer before running.
• Download the original CT scan data in DICOM format (51 MB): WitmerLab site, figshare

78. Lautenschlager, S., L. M. Witmer, Perle A., L. E. Zanno, and E. J. Rayfield. 2014. Cranial anatomy of Erlikosaurus andrewsi (Dinosauria, Therizinosauria): new insights based on digital reconstruction. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 34(6):1263–1291.
Download a 3D PDF of the restored fossil skull of Erlikosaurus
Download a 3D PDF of the original fossil skull of Erlikosaurus

77. Bourke, J. M., Wm. R. Porter, R. C. Ridgely, T. R. Lyson, E. R. Schachner, P. R. Bell, and L. M. Witmer. 2014. Breathing life into dinosaurs: tackling challenges of soft-tissue restoration and nasal airflow in extinct species. Anatomical Record 297:2148–2186.
Visit the Project Page for a Common Language Summary, PDF download of the article, and other content
Check out the YouTube video

76. Eastman, J. T., L. M. Witmer, R. C. Ridgely, and K. L. Kuhn. 2014. Divergence in skeletal mass and bone morphology in Antarctic notothenioid fishes. Journal of Morphology 275:841–861. DOI 10.1002/jmor.20258.

75. Lautenschlager, S., L. M. Witmer, Perle A., and E. J. Rayfield. 2013. Edentulism, beaks, and biomechanical innovations in the evolution of theropod dinosaurs. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110:20657–20662. doi:10.1073/pnas.1310711110.

74. Wroe, S., C. Uphar, W. C. H. Parr, P. Clausen, R. C. Ridgely, and L. M. Witmer. 2103. Comparative biomechanical modeling of metatherian and placental saber-tooths: A different kind of bite for an extreme pouched predator. PLOS ONE 8(6): e66888. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066888.

73. Hurlburt, G. R., R. C. Ridgely, and L. M. Witmer. 2013. Relative size of brain and cerebrum in tyrannosaurid dinosaurs: an analysis using brain-endocast quantitative relationships in extant alligators. Pp. 134–154 In J. M. Parrish, R. E. Molnar, P. J. Currie, and E. B. Koppelhus (eds.) Tyrannosaurid Paleobiology. Indiana University Press, Bloomington.

72. Snively, E., J. R. Cotton, John R., R. C. Ridgely, and L. M. Witmer. 2013. Multibody dynamics model of head and neck function in Allosaurus (Dinosauria, Theropoda), Palaeontologia Electronica Vol. 16 (2) 11A 29p.
Visit the Project Page for a Common Language Summary, PDF download of the article, and other content
Check out the YouTube video
Visit the Palaeontologia Electronica site

71. Knoll, F., R. C. Ridgely, F. Ortega, J. L. Sanz, and L. M. Witmer. 2013. Neurocranial osteology and neuroanatomy of a Late Cretaceous titanosaurian sauropod from Spain (Ampelosaurus sp.). PLOS ONE 8(1): e54991. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054991.

70. Lautenschlager, S., E. J. Rayfield, Perle A., L. E. Zanno, and L. M. Witmer. 2012. The endocranial anatomy of Therizinosauria and its implications for sensory and cognitive function. PLOS ONE 7(12): e52289. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052289.

69. Young, M. T., E. J. Rayfield, C. M. Holliday, L. M. Witmer, D. J. Button, P. Upchurch, and P. M. Barrett. 2012. Cranial biomechanics of Diplodocus (Dinosauria, Sauropoda): testing hypotheses of feeding behaviour in an extinct megaherbivore. Naturwissenschaften 99(8):637–643.

68. Dilkes, D. W., J. R. Hutchinson, C. M. Holliday, and L. M. Witmer. 2012. Reconstructing the musculature of dinosaurs. Pp. 150–190 In M. K. Brett-Surman, T. R. Holtz, and J. O. Farlow (eds.) The Complete Dinosaur, 2nd Edition. Indiana University Press, Bloomington.

67. Knoll, F., L. M. Witmer, F. Ortega, R. C. Ridgely, and D. Schwarz-Wings. 2012. The braincase of the basal sauropod dinosaur Spinophorosaurus and 3D reconstructions of the cranial endocast and inner ear. PLoS ONE 7(1): e30060. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0030060.

65. Miyahsita, T., V. M. Arbour, L. M. Witmer, and P. J. Currie. 2011. The internal cranial morphology of an armoured dinosaur Euoplocephalus corroborated by X-ray computed tomographic reconstruction. Journal of Anatomy 219:661–675.
Find out the back story on Witmer's blog post on Pick-and-Scalpel

65. Witmer, L. M. 2011. Palaeontology: Archaeopteryx: an icon knocked from its perch. Nature 475:458–459.

64. Tsuihiji, T., M. Watabe, K. Togtbaatar, T. Tsubamoto, R. Barsbold, S. Suzuki, A. H. Lee, R. C. Ridgely, Y. Kawahara, and L. M. Witmer. 2011. Cranial osteology of a juvenile specimen of Tarbosaurus bataar from the Nemegt Formation (Upper Cretaceous) of Bugin Tsav, Mongolia. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 31:497–517.
Visit the Project Page for a Common Language Summary, PDF download of the article, and other content
Find out the back story on Witmer's blog post on Pick-and-Scalpel

63. Zelenitsky, D. K., F. Therrien, R. C. Ridgely, A. R. McGee, and L. M. Witmer. 2011. Evolution of olfaction in non-avian theropod dinosaurs and birds. Proceedings of the Royal Society B.

62. Witmer, L. M. and R. C. Ridgely. 2010. The Cleveland tyrannosaur skull (Nanotyrannus or Tyrannosaurus): new findings based on CT scanning, with special reference to the braincase. Kirtlandia 57:61–81.

61. Holliday, C. M., R. C. Ridgely, J. C. Sedlmayr, and L. M. Witmer. 2010. Cartilaginous epiphyses in extant archosaurs and their implications for reconstructing limb function in dinosaurs. PLoS ONE 5(9): e13120.
Download a PDF of the article with Supporting Information
Find out the back story on Witmer's blog post on Pick-and-Scalpel
Visit Casey Holliday's site at the University of Missouri for even more resources

60. Degrange, F. J., C. P. Tambussi, K. Moreno, L. M. Witmer, and S. Wroe. 2010. Mechanical analysis of feeding behavior in the extinct "terror bird" Andalgalornis steulleti (Gruiformes: Phorusrhacidae). PLoS ONE 5(8): e11856. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.001185
Visit the Project Page for a Common Language Summary, PDF download of the article, and other content
Visit a page with Additional Resources, such as news releases, images, movies, animations, and more
Visit the WitmerLab Facebook page for a photo album

59. Hieronymus, T. L., and L. M. Witmer. 2010. Homology and evolution of avian compound rhamphothecae. Auk 127:590–604.

58. Witmer, L. M. 2009. Palaeontology: feathered dinosaurs in a tangle. Nature 461:601–602.

57. Holliday, C. M. and L. M. Witmer. 2009. The epipterygoid of crocodyliforms and its significance for the evolution of the orbitotemporal region of eusuchians. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 29:715–733.

56. Witmer, L. M. and R. C. Ridgely. 2009. New insights into the brain, braincase, and ear region of tyrannosaurs, with implications for sensory organization and behavior. Anatomical Record 292:1266–1296.

55. Evans, D., L. M. Witmer, and R. C. Ridgely. 2009. Endocranial anatomy of lambeosaurine dinosaurs: a sensorineural perspective on cranial crest function. Anatomical Record 292:1315–1337.

54. Hieronymus, T. L., L. M. Witmer, D. H. Tanke, and P. J. Currie. 2009. The facial integument of centrosaurine ceratopsids: morphological and histological correlates of novel skin structures. Anatomical Record 292:1370–1396.

53. Witmer, L. M. 2009. Dinosaurs: Fuzzy origins for feathers. Nature 458:293–295.

52. Walsh, S. A., P. M. Barrett, A. C. Milner, G. Manley, and L. M. Witmer. 2009. Inner ear anatomy is a proxy for deducing auditory capability and behaviour in reptiles and birds. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 276:1355–1360.
Additional information and downloads on the WitmerLab site

51. Holliday, C. M. and L. M. Witmer. 2008. Cranial kinesis in dinosaurs: intracranial joints, protractor muscles, and their significance for cranial evolution and function in diapsids. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 28:1073–1088.
Additional information and downloads on the Casey Holliday's site.

50. Witmer, L. M., R. C. Ridgely, D. L. Dufeau, and M. C. Semones. 2008. Using CT to peer into the past: 3D visualization of the brain and ear regions of birds, crocodiles, and nonavian dinosaurs. Pp. 67–88 in H. Endo and R. Frey (eds.), Anatomical Imaging: Towards a New Morphology. Springer-Verlag, Tokyo.

49.  Witmer, L. M., and R. C. Ridgely. 2008. The paranasal air sinuses of predatory and armored dinosaurs (Archosauria: Theropoda and Ankylosauria) and their contribution to cephalic architecture. Anatomical Record 291:1362–1388.
Additional information and downloads on the WitmerLab site

48. Witmer, L. M., and R. C. Ridgely. 2008. Structure of the brain cavity and inner ear of the centrosaurine ceratopsid Pachyrhinosaurus based on CT scanning and 3D visualization. Pp. 117–144 in P. J. Currie (ed.), A New Horned Dinosaur From an Upper Cretaceous Bone Bed in Alberta. National Research Council Research Press, Ottawa..
Additional information and downloads on the WitmerLab site

47. Sereno, P. C., J. A. Wilson, L. M. Witmer, J. A. Whitlock, A. Maga, O. Ide, and T. A. Rowe. 2007. Structural extremes in a Cretaceous dinosaur. PLoS ONE 2(11): e1230. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0001230.
PLoS Supplementary Information
Additional information and downloads on the WitmerLab site
Additional information and downloads on the Project Exploration site
Additional information and downloads on the DigiMorph site

46. Sampson, S. D. and L. M. Witmer. 2007. Craniofacial anatomy of Majungasaurus crenatissimus (Theropoda: Abelisauridae) from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar. Memoirs of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology 8, Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 27(Supplement to 2):32–102.
Additional information, downloads, and 3D digital visualizations on the WitmerLab site

45 Holliday, C. M. and L. M. Witmer. 2007. Archosaur adductor chamber evolution: integration of musculoskeletal and topological criteria in jaw muscle homology. Journal of Morphology 268:457–484.
• Additional information and downloads on Casey Holliday's site

44. Holliday, C. M., R. C. Ridgely, A. M. Balanoff, and L. M. Witmer*. 2006. Cephalic vascular anatomy in flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber) based on novel vascular injection and computed tomographic imaging analyses. Anatomical Record 288A(10)1031–41.
Additional information and downloads on the WitmerLab site

43. Hieronymus, T. L., R. C. Ridgely, and L. M. Witmer. 2006. Structure of white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) horn investigated by x-ray computed tomography and histology with implications for growth and external form. Journal of Morphology 267:1172–1176.
Additional information and downloads on the WitmerLab site.

42. Clifford, A. B. and L. M. Witmer.  2004.  Case studies in novel narial anatomy: 3. Structure and function of the nasal cavity of saiga (Artiodactyla: Bovidae: Saiga tatarica). Journal of Zoology 264:217–230.
Digital Visualizations on DigiMorph.org

41. Norman, D. B., L. M. Witmer, and D. B. Weishampel.  2004.  Basal Ornithischia. Pp. 325–334  in The Dinosauria, 2nd Edition, D. B. Weishampel, P. Dodson, and H. Osmólska (Eds.), University of California Press, Berkeley.

40. Norman, D. B., L. M. Witmer, and D. B. Weishampel.  2004.  Basal Thyreophora. Pp. 335-342 in The Dinosauria, 2nd Edition, D. B. Weishampel, P. Dodson, and H. Osmólska (Eds.), University of California Press, Berkeley.

39. Norman, D. B., H.-D. Sues, L. M. Witmer, and R. A. Coria.  2004.  Basal Ornithopoda. Pp. 393–412 in The Dinosauria, 2nd Edition, D. B. Weishampel, P. Dodson, and H. Osmólska (Eds.), University of California Press, Berkeley.

38. Witmer, L. M., R. C. Ridgely, H. Mayle, D. Adams.  2004.  The best of both worlds: integrating CT and MR in a study of pig knees. RT Image 17(32):16–19.
RT Image web site
Digital Visualizations on DigiMorph.org

37. Witmer, L. M.  2004.  Inside the oldest bird brain. Nature 430:619–620.

36. Clifford, A. B. and L. M. Witmer.  2004.  Case studies in novel narial anatomy: 2. The enigmatic nose of moose (Artiodactyla: Cervidae: Alces alces). Journal of Zoology 262:339–360.
Accompanying Nature "News & Views"
Digital visualizations on DigiMorph.org

35. Witmer, L. M., S. Chatterjee, J. Franzosa, and T. Rowe.  2003.  Neuroanatomy of flying reptiles and implications for flight, posture and behaviour. Nature 425:950–953.
Accompanying Nature "News & Views"
• Digital visualizations on DigiMorph.org: Anhanguera, Rhamphorhynchus

34. You H.-L., Luo Z.-X.,N. H. Shubin, L. M. Witmer, Tang A.-L, and Tang F.  2003.  The earliest-known duck-billed dinosaur from deposits of late Early Cretaceous age in northwestern China and hadrosaur evolution. Cretaceous Research 24:346–355.

33. Hill, R. V., L. M. Witmer, M.A. Norell. 2003.  A new specimen of Pinacosaurus grangeri (Dinosauria: Ornithischia) from the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia: ontogeny and phylogeny of ankylosaurs. American Museum Novitates 3395:1–29.

32. Bimber, O., S. M. Gatesy, L. M. Witmer, R. Raskar, and L. M. Encarnação.  2002.  Merging fossil specimens with computer-generated information. IEEE Computer 35(9):25–30.  

31. Chiappe, L. M. and L. M. Witmer. 2002. Preface. Pp. ix–xii in Mesozoic Birds: Above the Heads of Dinosaurs, L. M. Chiappe and L. M. Witmer (eds.), University of California Press, Berkeley.

30. Witmer, L. M.  2002.  The debate on avian ancestry: phylogeny, function, and fossils. In Mesozoic Birds: Above the Heads of Dinosaurs, L. M. Chiappe and L. M. Witmer (eds.), University of California Press, Berkeley.  

29. Sedlmayr, J. C. and L. M. Witmer.  2002.  Rapid technique for imaging the blood vascular system using stereoangiography. Anatomical Record 267(4):330–336.

28. Witmer, L. M.  2001.  Nostril position in dinosaurs and other vertebrates and its significance for nasal function.  Science 293:850–853.  

27. Witmer, L. M.  2001.  The role of Protoavis in the debate on avian origins. pp. 537–548  In New Perspectives on the Origin and Early Evolution of Birds, J. A. Gauthier and L. F. Gall (eds.), Yale Peabody Museum, New Haven.  

26. Witmer, L. M.  2000.  Science, art, and dinosaurs. Essay and review of Dinosaur Imagery: The Science of Lost Worlds and Jurassic Art, edited by C. R. Crumly. Science 5489:460–461.  

25. Witmer, L. M.  1999.  New aspects of avian origins: roundtable report. pp. 327–334 in Avian Paleontology at the Close of the 20th Century: Proceedings of the 4th International Meeting of the Society of Avian Paleontology and Evolution, S. L. Olson (ed.), Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology 89, Washington.

24. Witmer, L. M., S. D. Sampson, and N. Solounias.  1999. The proboscis of tapirs (Tapirus terrestris): a case study in novel narial anatomy. Journal of Zoology 249:249–267.  

23. Solounias, N., J. M. Plavcan, J. Quade and L. M. Witmer. 1999.  The paleoecology of the Pikermian Biome and the savanna myth.  pp. 426-453.  In Hominoid Evolution and Climatic Change in Europe. Volume 1: The Evolution of Neogene Terrestrial Ecosystems in Europe.  J. Agustí, L. Rook, and P. Andrews (eds.).  Cambridge University Press, New York.

22. Witmer, L. M. 1999. The phylogenetic history of paranasal air sinuses. pp. 21–34 in The Paranasal Sinuses of Higher Primates: Development, Function and Evolution, T. Koppe, H. Nagai, and K. W. Alt (eds.), Quintessence, Chicago.

21. Sampson, S. D., L. M. Witmer, C. A. Forster, D. W. Krause, P. M. O’Connor, P. Dodson, and F. Ravoavy.  1998.  Predatory dinosaur remains from Madagascar: implications for the Cretaceous biogeography of Gondwana. Science 280:1048–1051.  

20. Witmer, L. M.  1998.  Dinosaurs for adults.  Review of The Complete Dinosaur by J. O. Farlow and M. K. Brett-Surman.  Science 280:223.

19.  Witmer, L. M.  1997.  Craniofacial air sinus systems.  pp. 151–159 in The Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs, P. J. Currie and K. Padian (eds.), Academic Press, New York.

18.  Witmer, L. M.  1997.  Foreword.  pp. vii–xii in The Rise of Birds: 225 Million Years of Evolution, by S. Chatterjee, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.

17. Witmer, L. M.   1997.  Flying feathers.  Review of The Origin and Evolution of Birds by Alan Feduccia.  Science 276:1209–1210.

16. Witmer, L. M.  1997.  A new missing link.  Nature 387:349–350.

15. Witmer, L. M.  1997.  The evolution of the antorbital cavity of archosaurs: a study in soft-tissue reconstruction in the fossil record with an analysis of the function of pneumaticity.  Memoirs of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 17(Supplement to 1):1–73.

14. Witmer, L. M.  1995.  Homology of facial structures in extant archosaurs (birds and crocodilians), with special reference to paranasal pneumaticity and nasal conchae.  Journal of Morphology 225:269–327.

13. Witmer, L. M.  1995.  The Extant Phylogenetic Bracket and the importance of reconstructing soft tissues in fossils.  pp. 19–33 in Functional Morphology in Vertebrate Paleontology, J. J. Thomason (ed.), Cambridge Univ. Press, New York.

12. Baumel, J. J. and Witmer, L. M.  1993.   Osteologia. pp. 45–132 in Handbook of Avian Anatomy: Nomina Anatomica Avium, Second Edition, J. J. Baumel (ed.),  Publications of the Nuttall Ornithological Club No. 23, Cambridge.

11.  Witmer, L. M. and Rose, K. D.  1991.  Biomechanics of the jaw apparatus of the gigantic Eocene bird Diatryma: Implications for diet and mode of life. Paleobiology 17:95–120.

10. Witmer, L. M.  1991.  Perspectives on avian origins. pp. 427–466 in Origins of the Higher Groups of Tetrapods: Controversy and Consensus, H.-P. Schultze and L. Trueb (eds.), Cornell University Press, Ithaca.

9. Witmer, L. M.  1990.  The craniofacial air sac system of Mesozoic birds (Aves). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 100:327–378.

8. Weishampel, D. B. and Witmer, L. M.  1990.  Lesothosaurus, Pisanosaurus, and Technosaurus. pp. 416–425 in The Dinosauria, D. B. Weishampel, P. Dodson, and H. Osmólska (Eds.), University of California Press, Berkeley.

7. Weishampel, D. B. and Witmer, L. M.  1990.  Heterodontosauridae. pp. 486–497 in The Dinosauria, D. B. Weishampel, P. Dodson, and H. Osmólska (Eds.), University of California Press, Berkeley.

6. Coombs, W. P., Weishampel, D. B., and Witmer, L. M.  1990. Basal Thyreophora. pp. 427–434 in The Dinosauria, D. B. Weishampel, P. Dodson, and H. Osmólska (Eds.), University of California Press, Berkeley.

5. Witmer, L. M.  1989.  Review: Peter W. Houde: Paleognathous birds from the early Tertiary of the Northern Hemisphere. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 9(3):368–369.

4.  Bühler, P., Martin, L. D., and Witmer, L. M.  1988.  Cranial kinesis in the Late Cretaceous birds Hesperornis and Parahesperornis. Auk: Quarterly Journal of Ornithology 105(1):111–122.

3. Witmer, L. M. and Martin, L. D.  1987.  The primitive features of the avian palate with special reference to Mesozoic birds. Documents des Laboratoires de Géologie, Lyon 99:21–40.

2. Witmer, L. M.  1987.  The nature of the antorbital fossa of archosaurs: shifting the null hypothesis.  pp. 230–235 in Fourth Symposium on Mesozoic Terrestrial Ecosystems, Short Papers (P. J. Currie and E. H. Koster, Eds.), Occasional Paper of the Tyrrell Museum of Palaeontology #3, Drumheller, Alberta.

1. Witmer, L. M.  1979.  Host preference by the Mid-Devonian (Moscow Shale) epizoans Hederella filiformis, Aulopora elleri, Spirorbis sp., and Cornulites sp.  Cornell Journal of Biological Science 1979:21–28.

 

Web Sites Managed

• WitmerLab sites on OU servers: http://www.ohio.edu/people/witmerl/lab.htm

• Witmer’s personal site: http://www.ohio.edu/people/witmerl/index.htm

• Ohio University MicroCT Facility: https://www.ohio.edu/medicine/research/facilities/microct-scanner/index.cfm

• WitmerLab Facebook page: http://www.facebook.com/witmerlab

• WitmerLab YouTube Channel: http://www.youtube.com/witmerlab

• WitmerLab Twitter (@WitmerLab): https://twitter.com/WitmerLab   

• WitmerLab Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/witmerlab/  

• WitmerLab Sketchfab: https://sketchfab.com/witmerlab

• WitmerLab “Pick and Scalpel” blog: http://witmerlab.wordpress.com/

• International Congress of Vertebrate Morphology Facebook page: http://www.facebook.com/ICVM10

 

Books and Popular Articles

1. Chiappe, L. M. and L. M. Witmer (editors). 2002.  Mesozoic Birds: Above the Heads of Dinosaurs. University of California Press, Berkeley, 520 pp.

2. Witmer, L. M.  2001.  A nose for all reasons. Natural History Magazine, June 2001 110(5):64–71.

3. Maxwell W. D. and L. M. Witmer. 1996. The new Deinonychus. Dinosaur Discoveries 2:1–2.  

4. Witmer, L. M.  1995.  The Search for the Origin of Birds. Franklin Watts, New York.

   

NSF Digital Library Contributions ON dIGIMORPH

1. Ridgely, R. C. and L. M. Witmer. 2007. Cranial endocast and skull anatomy in the African sauropod dinosaur Nigersaurus.

2. A. B. Clifford and L. M. Witmer.  2004.  Facial and narial anatomy of saiga. 

3. Ridgely, R. C.  and L. M. Witmer.  2004. Knee anatomy in domestic pigs based on CT/MR fusion.

4. Holliday, C. M., R. C. Ridgely, and L. M. Witmer.  2004.  Head vasculature of the Caribbean flamingo.

5. A. B. Clifford and L. M. Witmer.  2004.  Facial and narial anatomy of moose. 

6. Witmer, L. M., S. Chatterjee, J. Franzosa, and T. Rowe.  2003.  Neuroanatomy and inner ear of the pterosaur Anhanguera.

7. Witmer, L. M., S. Chatterjee, J. Franzosa, and T. Rowe.  2003.  Neuroanatomy and inner ear of the pterosaur Rhamphorhycnhus.

 

Symposia Organized

2016. 11th International Congress of Vertebrate Morphology, Washington, DC, June–July 2016. Chair of Scientific Program Committee.

2015. Guest Society Symposium for the International Society of Vertebrate Morphologists at the American Association of Anatomists meeting at the Experimental Biology conference, March 2015.

2013. 10th International Congress of Vertebrate Morphology, Barcelona, Spain, July 2013.

2001. The Nasal Region of Tetrapods (with W. Maier and Z. Rocek).  Sixth International Congress of Vertebrate Morphology, Jena Germany, 24 July 2001.

1997.  Pneumatization of the Vertebrate Skull (with Thomas Koppe). Fifth International Congress of Vertebrate Morphology, Bristol, England, 17 July 1997.

 

Invited Lectures since 2003

2016    • Darwin Day Lecture, Southern Illinois University Edwardsville, 15 February 2015. “Fleshing out dinosaurs! From Darwin’s Bulldog to advanced 3D modeling.”

            • Departmental seminar, Biological Sciences, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Series, Virginia Tech University, 4 February 2016. “Fleshing out the past: exploring dinosaur anatomy and function with advanced 3D modeling.”

2015    • Plenary Keynote Address: 6th International Meeting on Craniocervical Systems in Vertebrates, Ghent, Belgium, 7–10 July 2015. “Fleshing out dinosaur head and neck functional anatomy with advanced 3D modeling.”

2014    • NESCent Catalysis Meeting on the Evolution of the Avian Brain, Duke University, 14 May 2014. “Segmenting endocasts into brain regions: Approaches in the WitmerLab.”

            • NESCent Catalysis Meeting on the Evolution of the Avian Brain, Duke University, 14 May 2014. “Brain diversity across Archosauria. Evolving an on-board flight computer: brains, ears, and the evolution of birds, dinosaurs, and pterosaurs.”

            • Departmental seminar, School of Earth Sciences, Ohio State University, 20 February 2014. “The Visible Interactive Dinosaur project: fleshing out dinosaur head anatomy and function with advanced 3D imaging.”

2013    • Science Café (PBS Innovation Café), Front Room, Baker Center, Ohio University, 25 September 2013. “Fleshing out dinosaurs…in 3D!”

            • Dinosaur Day, Athens Public Library, Athens, OH, 11 June 2013. “Dinosaurs Up Close – the Science of Dinosaurs on the 20th Anniversary of Jurassic Park.

            • Plenary Speaker, 125th Anniversary Meeting of the American Association of Anatomists, Boston, MA, 22 Apr 2013. “The Visible Interactive Dinosaur project: fleshing out dinosaur head anatomy and function with advanced 3D imaging.”

            • Departmental seminar, Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA, 25 March 2013. “Digital dinosaurs: shedding light on dinosaur sensory biology and behavior using advanced 3D imaging.”

2012    • Dinosaur Day, Ohio Valley Museum of Discovery, Athens, OH, 8 Dec 2012. “Dinosaurs Up Close.”

            • Opening Plenary Public Lecture, Society of Vertebrate Paleontology meeting, North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences, Raleigh, NC, 16 Oct 2012. “Fleshing out the past…in 3D! Integrating science, technology and outreach with the Visible Interactive Dinosaur Project."

            • Perkins Hall Dormitory lecture, Ohio University, 25 Sep 2012. “Dinosaurs? At OU? Fleshing out dinosaur evolution in the digital age.”

            • PaleoFest 2012, Burpee Museum of Natural History, Rockford, IL, 3 Mar 2012. “The Visible Dinosaur: integrating science, technology, and outreach.”

            • Midwestern University, Chicago College of Osteopathic Medicine, 27 Feb 2012, “Anatomy in the digital age: humans, dinosaurs, and beyond.”

2011    • Keynote address, Tri-Beta Biological Honor Society District Convention, 9 Apr 2011. “Digital dinosaurs: solving the riddles of dinosaur biology using advanced 3D imaging.”

            • Rotary International, Athens Chapter, 7 Feb 2011. “The Visible Dinosaur: Integrating science and outreach.”

2010    • Integrative Anatomy Seminar, University of Missouri, 15 Nov 2010. “Evolving an on-board flight computer: brains, ears, and the evolution of birds, dinosaurs, and pterosaurs.”

            • Saturday Morning Science, University of Missouri, 13 Nov 2010. "Dinosaurs exposed! Advanced 3D imaging sheds new light on their lives"

            • Johns Hopkins University, 26 Feb 2010. “Digital dinosaurs: shedding light on dinosaur sensory biology and behavior using advanced 3D imaging.”

            • Yale University, 24 Feb 2010. “Digital dinosaurs: shedding light on dinosaur sensory biology and behavior using advanced 3D imaging.”

2009    • Annual Address, Palaeontological Association, University of Birmingham, England, 14 Dec 2009. “Digital dinosaurs: Unlocking the riddles of the past using advanced 3D imaging.”

            • Ohio University Science Café, 14 Oct 2009. “Fleshing out dinosaur evolution.”

            • University of Cincinnati, 23 Apr 2009. “Evolving an on-board flight computer: brains, ears, and the evolution of birds, dinosaurs, and pterosaurs.”

2008    • Ohio University Geology Colloquium, 19 Sep 2008. “Digital dinosaurs: shedding light on dinosaur sensory biology and behavior using advanced 3D imaging.”

            • University of California, Davis. 30 Apr 2008. “Digital dinosaurs: shedding light on dinosaur sensory biology and behavior using advanced 3D imaging.”

            • Dinosaur Lecture Series, Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Pittsburgh. 12 Apr 2008. “Dinosaurs exposed: unlocking the riddles of Carnegie’s dinosaurs using advanced medical imaging.”

            • Frontiers in Science Lecture, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton. 27 Mar 2008. “Digital dinosaurs: solving the riddles of dinosaurs using advanced medical imaging.”

2007   • Ohio University, BMIT/DRI/EBI Joint Retreat. 10 Dec 2007. “OUµCT: The Ohio University MicroCT scanner as a tool for visualization and quantitative analysis of small subjects.”

           • Georgia College and State University, Milledgeville. 12 Nov 2007. “Evolving an on-board flight computer: brains, ears, and the evolution of birds, dinosaurs, and pterosaurs”

2006   • Explorer Lecture, Cleveland Museum of Natural History. 08 Dec 2006. “Tyrannosaurus Exposed: Getting into the Head of a Killer.”

            • Museum of the Rockies, Montana State University, Bozeman. 16 Nov 2006. “Digital Dinosaurs: Unlocking the Riddles of Dinosaur Skulls Using Advanced Medical Imaging.”

            • Symposium on New Approaches to Paleontological Investigation at the American Association for the Advancement of Science Annual Meeting, 17 Feb 2006. “Fleshing Out Dinosaurs: Implications of Brain, Ear, and Nose Structure.”

2005   • Symposium on the Origin, Systematics, and Paleobiology of the Tyrannosauridae, Burpee Museum of Natural History and Northern Illinois University, Rockford, IL. 16 Sep 2005. “New insights into the brain and ear region of tyrannosaurs, with implications for sensory organization and behavior.”

            Evolutionary Morphology Seminar Series, Dept. of Organismal Biology and Anatomy, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL. 14 Apr 2005. “Fleshing Out Dinosaurs: Bridging the Present and Past to Redefine Paleontology.”

2004    • Earth History and Paleobiology Seminar Series, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA. 16 Nov 2004. “What is Paleontology? Linking the Present to the Past to Flesh Out Fossils.”

            Symposium on Feathered Dinosaurs and the Origin of Flight, San Diego Natural History Museum, San Diego, CA. 13 Sep 2004. “Dinosaurs Take Wing: The Search for the Origin of Birds.”

            Seventh International Congress of Vertebrate Morphology, Boca Raton, FL. 01 Aug 2004. “Fleshing Out Fossils: The Present as the Key to a Very Different Past.” (plenary keynote address)

            Neuroscience Seminar Series, Ohio University, Athens, OH. 27 Feb 2004. “Paleoneuroanatomy and the Inference of Neural and Vestibular Structures in Dinosaurs and Pterodactyls.”

            Annual Robert T. Dorsey Lecture, Cleveland Museum of Natural History, Cleveland, OH. 09 Feb 2004. “Dinosaurs Take Wing: The Origin and Early Radiation of Birds.”

2003    • President’s Research Showcase, Ohio University, Athens, OH. 15 Nov 2003. “diNOSE: Putting Dinosaur Noses in Their Place.”

            Sigma-Xi Annual Banquet, Ohio University, Athens, OH. 14 May 2003. “Fleshing Out Dinosaurs: The Present as the Key to a Very Different Past.”

            High-Resolution X-ray CT Facility, University of Texas, Austin, TX. 27 Mar 2003. “Anatomical approaches in the Witmer Lab.”

            Clara Jones Langston Centennial Lecture, University of Texas, Austin, TX. 26 Mar 2003. “Fleshing Out Dinosaurs: The Role of Extant Taxa in Assessing Anatomical Novelty in the Fossil Record.”

 

Papers Presented at Professional Society Meetings   

2017    L. M. Witmer, R. C. Ridgely, H. F. James, S. L. Olson, and A.N. Iwaniuk. 2017. The remarkable, recently extinct “mole-duck” Talpanas lippa (Aves: Anseriformes) from Kauai, Hawaii: behavioral implications of its neuroanatomy and skull morphology. 129th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Anatomists, Experimental Biology Conference, Chicago, IL.

            Morhardt, A. C., R. C. Ridgely, and L. M. Witmer. 2017. Gross Anatomical Brain Region Approximation (GABRA): a new landmark-based approach for estimating brain regions in archosaurs. 129th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Anatomists, Experimental Biology Conference, Chicago, IL.

            Porter, W. R., and L. M. Witmer. 2017. Restoring dinosaur cephalic vascular anatomy and thermophysiology using osteological correlates and anastomotic connections. 129th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Anatomists, Experimental Biology Conference, Chicago, IL.

            Caggiano, E. G., D. G. Cerio, W. R. Porter, R. C. Ridgely, and L. M. Witmer. 2017. The nasal salt gland of extant birds: anatomical structure and its relevance for inferring the behavior and habitat preferences of extinct birds. 129th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Anatomists, Experimental Biology Conference, Chicago, IL.

            Early, C. M., and L. M. Witmer. 2017. Inferring vision-related neuroanatomy and behavior from the brain endocasts of birds. Annual Meeting of the Society of Integrative and Comparative Biology, New Orleans, LA.

2016    Holliday, C. M., C. Hill, J. L. Davis, L. M. Witmer, K. Middleton, K. 2016. Inside Dinosaurs: a broader impacts program for research, teaching and public education through dinosaur biology, physics and evolution. 76th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Salt Lake City, UT. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology Supplement—Meeting Program and Abstracts: 155–156.

            Nassif, J. P., J. Bourke, D. G. Cerio, D. L. Dufeau, C. M. Early, A. C. Morhardt, W. R. Porter, R. C. Ridgely, A. F. Spaw, and L. M. Witmer. 2016. A digital menagerie: building the WitmerLab's Visible Interactive Anatomy library as an open-access resource for research and education. 76th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Salt Lake City, UT. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology Supplement—Meeting Program and Abstracts: 195.

            Lamanna, M. C., R. D. Martínez, R. D., F. E. Novas, R. C. Ridgely, G. A. Casal, and L. M. Witmer. 2016. Anatomy, phylogeny, and paleobiology of Sarmientosaurus musacchioi, a titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous of central Patagonia, Argentina. 76th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Salt Lake City, UT. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology Supplement—Meeting Program and Abstracts: 171.

            Bailleul, A. M., L. M. Witmer, J. R. Horner, and C. M. Holliday. 2016. New histological data on the cranial joints of archosaurs: significance for the evolution and functional inferences of dinosaur cranial kinesis. 76th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Salt Lake City, UT. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology Supplement—Meeting Program and Abstracts: 92.

            Tsuihiji, T., M. Watabe, L. M. Witmer, K. Tsogtbaatar, and R. Barsbold. 2016. New specimen of Mononykus olecranus (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from Bugin Tsav, western Gobi Desert, Mongolia, with new information on the vertebral and skull morphology. 76th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Salt Lake City, UT. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology Supplement—Meeting Program and Abstracts: 239.

            Bourke, J., L. M. Witmer, R. C. Ridgely, W. R. Porter, and L. E. Zanno. 2016. Airflow simulations in the antorbital sinus of Acrocanthosaurus. Testing the potential for theropod paranasal sinuses to function as accessory cooling structures. 76th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Salt Lake City, UT. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology Supplement—Meeting Program and Abstracts: 101–102.

            Cost, I. N., K. C. Sellers, J. L. Davis, K. M. Middleton, L. M. Witmer, and C. M. Holliday. 2016. Postural changes and kinetic competency in the palates of birds and other diapsids. 76th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Salt Lake City, UT. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology Supplement—Meeting Program and Abstracts: 120–121.

            Holliday, C. M., W. R. Porter, T. Owerkowicz, K. Vliet, and L. M. Witmer. 2016. The soft tissues of the dorsotemporal fenestra of archosaurs and its significance for dinosaur biology. 76th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Salt Lake City, UT. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology Supplement—Meeting Program and Abstracts: 155.

            Felice, R. N., A. Cuff, L. M. Witmer, P. M. O'Connor, E. J. Rayfield, and A. Goswami. 2016. Quantifying modularity and rates of morphological evolution across Archosauria using phenomic data. 76th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Salt Lake City, UT. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology Supplement—Meeting Program and Abstracts: 134.

            Early, C. M., and L. M. Witmer. 2016. Predicting visual abilities and behaviors in extinct birds based on brain endocasts. 76th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Salt Lake City, UT. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology Supplement—Meeting Program and Abstracts: 128–129.

            Caggiano, E. G., D. G. Cerio, W. R. Porter, R. C. Ridgely, and L. M. Witmer. 2016. The anatomy of the nasal salt gland of extant birds and its relevance for inferring the behavior and habitat preferences of extinct birds and other archosaurs. 76th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Salt Lake City, UT. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology Supplement—Meeting Program and Abstracts: 108.

            Cerio, D. G., and L. M. Witmer. 2016. Soft tissue reconstruction and visual fields of dinosaurs and their extant relatives. 76th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Salt Lake City, UT. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology Supplement—Meeting Program and Abstracts: 113.

            Caggiano, E. G., and L. M. Witmer. 2016. Dissecting with Emily: an online video series to enhance outreach, engagement, and science communication. Ohio Avian Research Conference, Denison University, Granville, OH.

            Caggiano, E. G., and L. M. Witmer. 2016. The anatomy of the nasal salt gland of extant birds and its relevance for inferring the behavior and habitat preferences of extinct birds and other archosaurs. Ohio Avian Research Conference, Denison University, Granville, OH.

            Caggiano, E. G., and L. M. Witmer. 2016. Musculoskeletal adaptations for dynamic soaring flight in the Laysan albatross, a long-winged oceanic bird. Ohio Avian Research Conference, Denison University, Granville, OH.

            Bourke, J. M., W. R. Porter, and L. M. Witmer. 2016. Complicated noses keep cool heads: the thermoregulatory effects of nasal passage shape in extant birds and reptiles, with implications for dinosaurs. Program & Abstracts of the 11th International Congress of Vertebrate Morphology, Washington, D.C. 2016. Anatomical Record, Volume 299, Special Feature: 205–206.

            Porter, W. R., and L. M. Witmer. 2016. Vascular anatomy and thermophysiological strategies in the heads of extinct and extant dinosaurs. Program & Abstracts of the 11th International Congress of Vertebrate Morphology, Washington, D.C. 2016. Anatomical Record, Volume 299, Special Feature: 203–204.

            Morhardt, A. C., R. C. Ridgley, and L. M. Witmer. 2016. Diffusible iodine-based contrast enhancement of large, post-embryonic, intact vertebrates for CT scanning: staining, destaining, and long-term storage. Program & Abstracts of the 11th International Congress of Vertebrate Morphology, Washington, D.C. 2016. Anatomical Record, Volume 299, Special Feature: 89–90.

            Holliday, C., H. P. Tsai, I. N. Cost, K. C. Sellers, S. Lautenschlager, and L. M. Witmer. 2016. DiceCT and its applications for understanding the reptile musculoskeletal system. Program & Abstracts of the 11th International Congress of Vertebrate Morphology, Washington, D.C. 2016. Anatomical Record, Volume 299, Special Feature: 266.

            Nassif, J. P., R. C. Ridgley, and L. M. Witmer. 2016. Virtual reconstruction of the skull of a large parrot (Aves: Psittaciformes: Ara macao), highlighting the anatomy of the brain endocast, inner ear, rhamphotheca, and kinetic apparatus. Program & Abstracts of the 11th International Congress of Vertebrate Morphology, Washington, D.C. 2016. Anatomical Record, Volume 299, Special Feature: 259.

            Holliday, C. M., A. Bailleul, I. N. Cost, K. C. Sellers, L. M. Witmer, and M. K. Vickaryous. 2016. The significance of novel palatal joints in the adaptive radiations of archosaurs. Program & Abstracts of the 11th International Congress of Vertebrate Morphology, Washington, D.C. 2016. Anatomical Record, Volume 299, Special Feature: 209.

            Cost, I. N., A. Spates, K. C. Sellers, J. L. Davis, K. M. Middleton, L. M. Witmer, and C. M. Holliday. Relative kinetic competency in the palatal complexes of birds and other diapsids. Program & Abstracts of the 11th International Congress of Vertebrate Morphology, Washington, D.C. 2016. Anatomical Record, Volume 299, Special Feature: 208–209.

            Cerio, D. G., and L. M. Witmer. 2016. The visual apparatus of archosaurs: correlates of orbital anatomy, eye size, and behavior. Program & Abstracts of the 11th International Congress of Vertebrate Morphology, Washington, D.C. 2016. Anatomical Record, Volume 299, Special Feature: 232–233.

            Degrange, F. J., C. P. Tambussi, R. C. Ridgely, and L. M. Witmer. 2016. Neuroanatomy of the extinct terror birds (Aves: Phorusrhacidae): implications for a predatory mode of life. Program & Abstracts of the 11th International Congress of Vertebrate Morphology, Washington, D.C. 2016. Anatomical Record, Volume 299, Special Feature: 224.

            Early, C. M., R. C. Ridgely, W. R. Porter, D. G. Cerio, and L. M. Witmer. 2016. The skull and endocranial anatomy of the extinct giant moa Dinornis robustus (Aves: Palaeognathae) and implications for the behavioral role of vision in moa. Program & Abstracts of the 11th International Congress of Vertebrate Morphology, Washington, D.C. 2016. Anatomical Record, Volume 299, Special Feature: 223–224.

            Morhardt, A. C., R. C. Ridgley, and L. M. Witmer. 2016. Gross Anatomical Brain Region Approximation (GABRA): a new landmark-based approach for estimating brain regions in archosaurs. Program & Abstracts of the 11th International Congress of Vertebrate Morphology, Washington, D.C. 2016. Anatomical Record, Volume 299, Special Feature: 223.

            Bailleul, A. M., J. R. Horner, L. M. Witmer, and C. M. Holliday. 2016. Functional cranial joint histology in reptiles and birds and its significance for avian cranial kinesis. Program & Abstracts of the 11th International Congress of Vertebrate Morphology, Washington, D.C. 2016. Anatomical Record, Volume 299, Special Feature: 72.

2015    Holliday, C., K. C. Sellers, H. P. Tsai, M. K. Vickaryous, C. F. Ross, L. Porro, J. Davis, and L. M. Witmer. PMJs and TMJs: convergence in the craniomandibular joints of crocodyliforms and mammals. 75th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Dallas, TX. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology Supplement—Meeting Program and Abstracts: 145.

            Tsuihiji, T., M. Watabe, K. Tsogtbaatar, and L. M. Witmer. 2015. A new specimen of Shartegosuchus (Archosauria: Crocodyliformes) from the Upper Jurassic in Shar Teg, western Gobi Desert, Mongolia. 75th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Dallas, TX. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology Supplement—Meeting Program and Abstracts: 227.

            Early, C. M. and L. M. Witmer. 2015. Neuroanatomy, endocasts, and the evolution of brains and behavior in birds. 75th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Dallas, TX. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology Supplement—Meeting Program and Abstracts: 119.

            Knoll, F., R. C. Ridgely, and L. M. Witmer. 2015. Comparative paleoneurology of the basal dicraeosaurid sauropod Suuwassea emilieae. 75th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Dallas, TX. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology Supplement—Meeting Program and Abstracts: 156.

            Cost, I. N., A. Spates, K. C. Sellers, J. L. Davis, K. M. Middleton, L. M. Witmer, and C. M. Holliday. 2015. Biomechanics of the avian feeding apparatus. 75th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Dallas, TX. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology Supplement—Meeting Program and Abstracts: 110.

            Cerio, D. G., R. C. Ridgely, and L. M. Witmer. 2015. The eyes have it: bounding estimates of eye size in dinosaurs with soft-tissue reconstruction and the extant phylogenetic bracket approach. 75th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Dallas, TX. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology Supplement—Meeting Program and Abstracts: 104.

            Morhardt, A. C., R. C. Ridgley, and L. M. Witmer. 2015. Iodine-based CT Contrast-Enhancement of Vertebrates: best practices for staining, de-staining, and long-term storage of large, post-embryonic, intact specimens. The Austin Working Group: advancing contrast-enhanced CT imaging in the Biological Sciences. The University of Texas at Austin & The High-Resolution X-Ray CT Facility. Austin, Texas.

            Porter, W. R. and L. M. Witmer. 2015. Evidence for blood vessels and physiological heat exchange in the heads of dinosaurs. 127th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Anatomists, Experimental Biology Conference, Boston, MA.

            Holliday, C. M., K. C. Sellers, L. B. Porro, C. F. Ross, L. M. Witmer, and M. K. Vickaryous. 2015. PMJs and TMJs: Convergence in the craniomandibular joints of crocodilians and mammals. 127th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Anatomists, Experimental Biology Conference, Boston, MA.

            Bourke, J. M., W. R. Porter, R. C. Ridgely, and L. M. Witmer. 2015. Using airflow patterns to aid inferences of nasal soft-tissue reconstructions in dinosaurs. 127th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Anatomists, Experimental Biology Conference, Boston, MA. 

            Holliday, C. M., K. C. Sellers, M. K. Vickaryous, C. F. Ross, L. B. Porro, L. M. Witmer, and J. L. Davis. 2015. The functional and evolutionary significance of the crocodyliform pterygomandibular joint. Annual Meeting of the Society of Integrative and Comparative Biology, West Palm Beach, FL.

2014    Bourke, J., W. R. Porter, R. C. Ridgely, and L. M. Witmer. 2014. Airflow reconstruction and heat-transfer potential in the elongate nasal passages of the ankylosaurs Panoplosaurus mirus and Euoplocephalus tutus. 4th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Berlin, Germany. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology Supplement—Meeting Program and Abstracts: 95.

            Morhardt, A. M., G. Hurlburt, R. C. Ridgely, and L. M. Witmer. 2014. EQ in the 21st century: A reassessment of non-avian dinosaur encephalization quotient calculations and implications for modern paleoneurology. 74th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Berlin, Germany. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology Supplement—Meeting Program and Abstracts: 191.

            Knoll, F., R. C. Ridgely, D. Schwarz, and L. M. Witmer. 2014. The brain and inner ear of the sauropod dinosaurs from Tendaguru (Tanzania) in the context of sauropod evolution: a unique glimpse into the sensory world of Gondwanan Jurassic giants. 74th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Berlin, Germany. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology Supplement—Meeting Program and Abstracts: 160.

            Early, C. M., R. C. Ridgely, and L. M. Witmer. 2014. New findings on the brain and skull structure of the recently extinct flightless giant moa (Aves: Dinornis), with implications for its behavior. 74th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Berlin, Germany. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology Supplement—Meeting Program and Abstracts: 123.

            Holliday, C. M., K. Sellers, J. Davis, K. Middleton, and  L. M. Witmer. 2014. Modeling cranial biomechanics in archosaurs using 3D computational methods. 74th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Berlin, Germany. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology Supplement—Meeting Program and Abstracts: 149.

            Snively, E., R. C. Ridgely, and L. M. Witmer. 2014. Energetics inferences of neck muscle size and head accelerations of large theropod dinosaurs. 74th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Berlin, Germany. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology Supplement—Meeting Program and Abstracts: 232.

            Cerio, D. G., R. C. Ridgely, and L. M. Witmer. 2014. Peering into the past: Soft-tissue reconstruction, 3D modeling, and the visual apparatus of the extant relatives of dinosaurs. 74th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Berlin, Germany. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology Supplement—Meeting Program and Abstracts: 105.

            Heiner, E., and L. M. Witmer. 2014. Anatomical diversity of the avian feeding system: preliminary analysis of the hyolingual apparatus. 126th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Anatomists, Experimental Biology Conference, San Diego, CA.

            Spaw, A. J., and L. M. Witmer. 2014. Fetal developmental anatomy of the human cardiovascular and central nervous systems using Lugol’s iodine staining and micro- computed tomography. 126th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Anatomists, Experimental Biology Conference, San Diego, CA.

            Holliday, C. M., K. C. Sellers, J. L. Davis, J. C. Tea, C. Miller-Phillips, and L. M. Witmer. 2014. Modeling cranial biomechanics in archosaurs using 3D computational methods. 126th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Anatomists, Experimental Biology Conference, San Diego, CA.

            Holliday, C. M., J. C. Tea, K. C. Sellers, L. M. Witmer, and J. L. Davis. 2014. Estimating bite force in fossil vertebrates using 3D computational methods. Annual Meeting of the Society of Integrative and Comparative Biology, Austin, TX.

2013    Morhardt, A. C., R. C. Ridgely, D. Varricchio, and L. M. Witmer. 2013. New studies of braincase anatomy, brain size, and brain structure in the Late Cretaceous theropod Troodon formosus (Dinosauria: Saurischia) based on CT scanning and 3D visualization. 73rd Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Los Angeles, CA. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology Supplement—Program and Abstracts: 180.

            Knoll, F., L. M. Witmer, R. C. Ridgely, F. Ortega, and J. L. Sanz, J. 2013. A new titanosaurian sauropod neurocranium from the Late Cretaceous of Spain. 73rd Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Los Angeles, CA. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology Supplement—Program and Abstracts: 155.

            Porter, W. R. and L. M. Witmer. 2013. Evidence for sites of physiological heat exchange in the heads of dinosaurs. 73rd Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Los Angeles, CA. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology Supplement—Program and Abstracts: 193.

            Witmer, L. M., R. C. Ridgely, E. D. Snively, C. M. Holliday, W. R. Porter, J. Bourke, A. C. Morhardt. 2013. Analytical and modeling approaches for the digital restoration of dinosaur head functional anatomy within the Visible Interactive Dinosaur project. Program & Abstracts of the 10th International Congress of Vertebrate Morphology, Barcelona 2013. Anatomical Record, Volume 296, Special Feature: 292.

            Porter, W. R., and L. M. Witmer. 2013. Dinosaur cephalic vascular anatomy and its physiological implications. Program & Abstracts of the 10th International Congress of Vertebrate Morphology, Barcelona 2013. Anatomical Record, Volume 296, Special Feature: 236.

            Snively, E. D., Y. Kumbhar, J. Cotton, R. C. Ridgely, and L. M. Witmer. 2013. Multibody dynamics of feeding in the theropod dinosaur Allosaurus and domestic pigs: paleontological simulation and extant validation. Program & Abstracts of the 10th International Congress of Vertebrate Morphology, Barcelona 2013. Anatomical Record, Volume 296, Special Feature: 204.

            Bourke, J., R. C. Ridgely, W. R. Porter, T. Lyson, E. Schachner, P. Bell, and L. M. Witmer. 2013. Breathing life into dinosaurs: tackling challenges of soft-tissue reconstruction and nasal airflow in extinct species. Program & Abstracts of the 10th International Congress of Vertebrate Morphology, Barcelona 2013. Anatomical Record, Volume 296, Special Feature: 160.

            Witmer, L. M. 2013. The Visible Interactive Dinosaur project: fleshing out dinosaur head anatomy and function with advanced 3D imaging.125th Anniversary Meeting of the American Association of Anatomists, Boston, MA.

            Spaw, A. J., and L. M. Witmer. 2013. Novel anatomical analysis of human embryos using iodine staining and micro-computed tomography (CT Scanning). 125th Anniversary Meeting of the American Association of Anatomists, Boston, MA.

2012    Witmer, L. M. 2012. Fleshing out the past…in 3D! Integrating science, technology and outreach with the Visible Interactive Dinosaur Project. 72st Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Raleigh, NC. Society of Vertebrate Paleontology—Program and Abstracts: 4.

            Snively, E., J. R. Cotton, R. C. Ridgely, and L. M. Witmer. 2012. Feeding motions in Allosaurus (Dinosauria: Theropoda): multibody dynamics of the cervicocephalic apparatus suggests rapid lateral strikes but sagittal prey dismemberment. 72st Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Raleigh, NC. Society of Vertebrate Paleontology—Program and Abstracts: 9.

            Lautenschlager, S., E. J. Rayfield, L. M. Witmer, and Perle A. 2012. A biomechanical model of Erlikosaurus andrewsi (Dinosauria: Therizinosauria) with implications for cranial function and dietary preferences. 72st Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Raleigh, NC. Society of Vertebrate Paleontology—Program and Abstracts: 9.

            Morhardt, A. C., R. C. Ridgely, and L. M. Witmer. 2012. From endocast to brain: assessing brain size and structure in extinct archosaurs using Gross Anatomical Brain Region Aapproximation (GABRA). 72st Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Raleigh, NC. Society of Vertebrate Paleontology—Program and Abstracts: 11.

            Porter, W. P. and L. M. Witmer. 2012. Dinosaur cephalic vascular anatomy and its physiological implications: evidence from the fossils. 72st Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Raleigh, NC. Society of Vertebrate Paleontology—Program and Abstracts: 11.

            Dufeau, D. L., A. C. Morhardt, and L. M. Witmer. 2012.  Ontogenetic change in the cranial endocast and endosseous labyrinth of American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis): implications for the interpretation of extinct archosaurs. 72st Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Raleigh, NC. Society of Vertebrate Paleontology—Program and Abstracts: 16.

            Bourke, J. M., W. P. Porter, and L. M. Witmer. 2012. Dorsal or rostral nostrils? Testing fleshy nostril position and airflow in sauropods using computational fluid dynamics. 72st Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Raleigh, NC. Society of Vertebrate Paleontology—Program and Abstracts: 20.

            Romick, C. and L. M. Witmer. 2012. Ontogeny of the brain endocasts of ostriches (Aves: Struthio camelus), with implications for interpreting extinct dinosaur endocasts. 72st Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Raleigh, NC. Society of Vertebrate Paleontology—Program and Abstracts: 26.

            Knoll, F., L. M. Witmer, R. C. Ridgely, F. Ortega, and J. L. Sanz. 2012. 3D reconstructions of the brain endocast and inner ear of a titanosaur (Sauropoda: Titanosauria) from the Late Cretaceous of Spain. 72st Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Raleigh, NC. Society of Vertebrate Paleontology—Program and Abstracts: 34.

            Wroe, S., U. Chamoli, W. Parr, R. C. Ridgely, and L. M. Witmer. 2012. 3D biomechanical modelling of marsupial and placental sabre-tooths: a different kind of bite for an extreme pouched predator. 72st Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Raleigh, NC. Society of Vertebrate Paleontology—Program and Abstracts: 38.

            Porter, W. P., and L. M. Witmer. 2012. Vascular patterns in iguanas: blood vessels and cephalic sites of thermal exchange. Annual Meeting of the Society of Integrative and Comparative Biology, Charleston, South Carolina.

            Morhardt, A. C., R. C. Ridgely, and L. M. Witmer. 2012. Gross Anatomical Brain Region Approximation (GABRA): a new technique for assessing brain size and structure in extinct archosaurs. Annual Meeting of the Society of Integrative and Comparative Biology, Charleston, South Carolina.

            Bourke, J. M., and L. M. Witmer. 2012. Baffling bird noses: Modeling the effects of turbinate structure on airflow dynamics in ostriches and turkeys. Annual Meeting of the Society of Integrative and Comparative Biology, Charleston, South Carolina.   

2011    Zelenitsky, D. K., F. Therrien, R. C. Ridgely, A. R. McGee, and L. M. Witmer. 2011. Importance of olfaction during theropod evolution. 71st Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Las Vegas, NV. Society of Vertebrate Paleontology—Program and Abstracts: 219.

            Sues, H.-D., L. M. Witmer, and A. Averianov. 2011. Titanosauria (Sauropoda) from the Upper Cretaceous (Turonian) Bissekty Formation of Uzbekistan. 71st Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Las Vegas, NV. Society of Vertebrate Paleontology—Program and Abstracts: 201.

            Porter, W. P., and L. M. Witmer. 2011. Vascular anatomy and its physiological implications in extant and extinct dinosaurs and other diapsids. 71st Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Las Vegas, NV. Society of Vertebrate Paleontology—Program and Abstracts: 176.

            Porro, L., P. M. Barrett, and L. M. Witmer. 2011. A 3D skull of Lesothosaurus diagnosticus: digital preparation, reconstruction and feeding mechanics. 71st Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Las Vegas, NV. Society of Vertebrate Paleontology—Program and Abstracts: 176.

            Morhardt, A. C., R. C. Ridgely, and L. M. Witmer. 2011. New studies of brain and inner ear structure in Stegosaurus (Dinosauria: Ornithischia) based on CT scanning and 3D visualization. 71st Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Las Vegas, NV. Society of Vertebrate Paleontology—Program and Abstracts: 162.

            Lautenschlager, S., E. J. Rayfield, L. M. Witmer, and Perle A. 2011. The endocranial anatomy of the Mongolian therizinosauroid dinosaur Erlikosaurus andrewsi as revealed by 3D visualization. 71st Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Las Vegas, NV. Society of Vertebrate Paleontology—Program and Abstracts: 141.

            Knoll, F., L. M. Witmer, F. Ortega, R. C. Ridgely, and D. Schwarz-Wings. 2011. The braincase of the basal sauropod dinosaur Spinophorosaurus and a CT-based analysis of the brain and otic regions. 71st Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Las Vegas, NV. Society of Vertebrate Paleontology—Program and Abstracts: 137–138.

            Bourke, J. M., and L. M. Witmer. 2011. Computer modeling of nasal airflow in two extant avian dinosaurs (turkey and ostrich), with implications for modeling airflow in extinct theropods. 71st Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Las Vegas, NV. Society of Vertebrate Paleontology—Program and Abstracts: 75.

            Evans, D. C., P. J. Currie, L. M. Witmer, and J. R. Horner. 2011. A new low-crested lambeosaurine hadrosaurid from the Dinosaur Park Formation of Sandy Point, eastern Alberta. 2011 International Hadrosaur Symposium, Royal Tyrrell Museum of Palaeontology, Drumheller, Alberta.

            Barrett, P. M., G. W. Storrs, M. T. Young, and L. M. Witmer. 2011. A new skull of Apatosaurus and its taxonomic and palaeobiological implications. Annual Symposium of Vertebrate Palaeontology and Comparative Anatomy, Lyme Regis, UK.

            Snively, E., J. R. Cotton, L. M. Witmer, and R. C. Ridgley. 2011. Finite element comparison of cranial sinus function in the dinosaur Majungasaurus and head-clubbing giraffes. Proceedings of the ASME 2011 Summer Bioengineering Conference, Farmington, Pennsylvania.

            Morhardt, A. C., R. C. Ridgely, and L. M. Witmer. 2011. A brain the size of a walnut: new studies of brain and inner ear structure in Stegosaurus (Dinosauria: Ornithischia) based on CT scanning and 3D visualization. Geological Society of America Northeastern and North-Central Joint Meeting, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

            Bourke, J. M., and L. M. Witmer. 2011. Breathing life back into dinosaurs: computer modeling of nasal airflow in dinosaurs and their extant relatives. Geological Society of America Northeastern and North-Central Joint Meeting, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

            Porter, W. P., and L. M. Witmer. 2011. Vascular anatomy and physiological implications in extant and extinct theropod dinosaurs. Geological Society of America Northeastern and North-Central Joint Meeting, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

            Bourke, J. M., and L. M. Witmer. 2011. The nose knows: modeling airflow in alligators and dinosaurs. Annual Meeting of the Society of Integrative and Comparative Biology, Salt Lake City, Utah.

            Porter, W. P., and L. M. Witmer. 2011. Vascular patterns in galliform birds: regions of thermal exchange. Annual Meeting of the Society of Integrative and Comparative Biology, Salt Lake City, Utah.

2010    Martiny, A. R., R. C. Ridgely, D. L. Dufeau, W. R. Porter, J. M. Bourke, A. C. Morhardt, E. D. Snively, and L. M. Witmer. 2010. Promoting a culture of outreach within an active university research lab setting: WitmerLab at Ohio University. 70th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Pittsburgh, PA.

            Witmer, L. M., R. C. Ridgely, H. F. James, S. L. Olson, and A. N. Iwaniuk. 2010. Neuroanatomy, skull morphology and their behavioral implications for the remarkable, recently extinct “platypus-duck” Talpanas lippa (Aves: Anseriformes) from Kauai, Hawaii. 70th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Pittsburgh, PA. Society of Vertebrate Paleontology —Program and Abstracts: 188A.

            Snively, E. D., L. M. Witmer, R. C. Ridgely, S. Wroe, and M. Ryan. 2010. Impact and scythe-like jaw function in large cretaceous theropods: Majungasaurus, Tyrannosaurus and Giganotosaurus compared. 70th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Pittsburgh, PA. Society of Vertebrate Paleontology —Program and Abstracts: 168A.

            Ridgley, R. C., L. M. Witmer, H. F. James, S. L. Olson, and A. N. Iwaniuk. 2010. Whatever fits the bill: novel digital techniques for reconstructing skull and eyeball anatomy in the unusual extinct Hawaiian duck, Talpanas lippa. 70th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Pittsburgh, PA. Society of Vertebrate Paleontology —Program and Abstracts: 150A.

            Porter, W. P., and L. M. Witmer. 2010. Vasculature and dinosaur physiology: vascular patterns in extant diapsids. 70th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Pittsburgh, PA. Society of Vertebrate Paleontology —Program and Abstracts: 147A.

            Dufeau, D. L., and L. M. Witmer. 2010. Opportunism, acoustics and mass: exaptation and patterns of middle-ear expansion in Archosauria. 70th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Pittsburgh, PA. Society of Vertebrate Paleontology —Program and Abstracts: 83A.

            Bourke, J. M., and L. M. Witmer. 2010. The nose knows: the effects of nasal cavity anatomy on airflow in alligators. 70th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Pittsburgh, PA. Society of Vertebrate Paleontology —Program and Abstracts: 63A.

            Witmer, L. M., R. C. Ridgely, E. D. Snively, C. M. Holliday, T. L. Hieronymus, D. L. Dufeau, W. P. Porter, J. M. Bourke, and A. R. Martiny. 2010. Toward the Visible Dinosaur: integrating anatomical systems to test inferences of function, physiology and behavior. 9th International Congress of Vertebrate Morphology, Punta del Este, Uruguay.

            Dufeau, D. L., and L. M. Witmer. 2010. Anatomical boundaries of the middle-ear space of archosaurs—phylogenetic patterns and implications for auditory function. 9th International Congress of Vertebrate Morphology, Punta del Este, Uruguay.

            Holliday, C. M., and L. M. Witmer. 2010. The epipterygoid of crocodyliforms and its significance for the evolution of the orbitotemporal region of eusuchians. 9th International Congress of Vertebrate Morphology, Punta del Este, Uruguay.

            James, H. F., A. N. Iwaniuk, L. M. Witmer, M. D. Spitzer, R. C. Ridgley, and S. L. Olson. 2010. Talpanas lippa, a new fossil genus of waterfowl from Kauai with neurological similarities to platypus and kiwi. 9th International Congress of Vertebrate Morphology, Punta del Este, Uruguay.

            James, H. F., A. N. Iwaniuk, L. M. Witmer, M. D. Spitzer, R. C. Ridgley, and S. L. Olson. 2010. Comparative osteology of Talpanas lippa, a new fossil species of waterfowl from Kaua`i with neurological similarities to platypus and kiwi. Joint Meeting of Cooper Ornithological Society, American Ornithologists’ Union, and Society of Canadian Ornithologists, San Diego, CA.

            Porter, W. P., and L. M. Witmer. 2010. Vasculature and dinosaur physiology: patterns in the extant realm. Annual Meeting of the Society of Integrative and Comparative Biology, Seattle, WA.

            Dufeau, D. L., and L. M. Witmer. 2010. Acoustic resonance of the middle ear in Alligator—implications for behavioral correlations. Annual Meeting of the Society of Integrative and Comparative Biology, Seattle, WA.

2009    Witmer, L. M. 2009. Digital dinosaurs: Unlocking the riddles of the past using advanced 3D imaging. Annual Address at the Annual Meeting of the Palaeontological Association, University of Birmingham, UK.

            Young, M., E. Rayfield, C. M. Holliday, P. Barrett, and L. M. Witmer. 2009. Testing hypotheses of feeding behavior in Diplodocus longus using the finite-element method. 69th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Bristol, UK. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 29(Supplement to 3):205A.

            Dufeau, D., and L. M. Witmer. 2009. Anatomical boundaries of the middle-ear space of archosaurs. Phylogenetic patterns and implications for auditory function. 69th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Bristol, UK. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 29(Supplement to 3):90A.

            Daniel, J., and L. M. Witmer. 2009. Interpretations of sediment patterns in fossils based on an actualistic, taphonomic study of ostrich heads during and post-burial. 69th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Bristol, UK. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 29(Supplement to 3):85A.

            Hieronymus, T. L., and L. M. Witmer. 2009. Evolution of avian compound rhamphothecae: homology of simple and compound horny beaks in birds. Annual Meeting of the Society of Integrative and Comparative Biology, Boston, MA.

2008    Witmer, L. M., and R. C. Ridgely. 2008. Air spaces within the heads of dinosaurs and their contribution to cephalic structure. 68th Annual Meeting of the Society of VertebratePaleontology, Cleveland, OH. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 28(Supplement to 3):161A.

            Daniel, J. C., and L. M. Witmer. 2008. What can sediment patterns tell us about soft tissue?: an actualistic taphonomic study of ostrich heads during and pos-burial. 68th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Cleveland, OH. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 28(Supplement to 3):69A.

            Evans, D., L. M. Witmer, R. C. Ridgely, and J. R. Horner. 2008. Endocranial anatomy of lambeosaurine dinosaurs: implications for cranial crest function and evolution. 68th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Cleveland, OH. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 28(Supplement to 3):75A.

            Dufeau, D. L., and L. M. Witmer. 2008. Morphological patterns and phylogenetic trends in theropod braincase pneumaticity. 68th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Cleveland, OH. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 28(Supplement to 3):73A.

            Tsuihiji, T., L. M. Witmer, M. Watabe, R. Barsbold, and K. Tsogtbaatar. 2008. New information on the cranial anatomy of Avimimus portentosus (Dinosauria: Theropoda) including virtual endocasts of the brain and inner ear. 68th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Cleveland, OH. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 28(Supplement to 3):153A.

            Ridgely, R. C., and L. M. Witmer. 2008. Gross Anatomical Brain Region Approximation (GABRA): a new technique for assessing brain structure in dinosaurs and other fossil archosaurs. 68th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Cleveland, OH. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 28(Supplement to 3):131A.

            Walsh, S. A, A. C. Milner, P. M. Barrett, G. Manley, and L. M. Witmer. 2008. Can hearing and vocalization capacities be estimated from cochlear duct endocasts? 68th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Cleveland, OH. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 28(Supplement to 3):157A.

            Smith, D., D. L. Dufeau, R. K. Sanders, R. C. Ridgely, and L. M. Witmer. 2008. The cranial endocast of Eutretauranosuchus delfsi (Crocodyliformes, Goniopholididae) and its relationship to other cephalic spaces. 68th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Cleveland, OH. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 28(Supplement to 3):144A.

            Degrange, F., K. Moreno, S. Wroe, C. Tambussi, and L. M. Witmer. 2008. A computational biomechanical approach to the reconstruction of predatory behavior in the terror bird Andalgalornis steulleti. 68th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Cleveland, OH. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 28(Supplement to 3):71A.

Hieronymus, T. L., and L. M. Witmer. 2008. The facial skin of Majungasaurus crenatissimus (Abelisauridae: Saurischia): pronounced dermal metaplasia as the cause of rugosity in abelisaurid skulls. 68th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Cleveland, OH. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 28(Supplement to 3):90A.

Iwaniuk, A. N, H. F. James, S. L. Olson, D. R. W. Wylie, R. C. Ridgely, and L. M. Witmer. 2008. Evidence of extreme somatosensory specialization in an extinct duck. Program No. 79.13. 2008 Neuroscience Meeting Planner. Washington, DC: Society for Neuroscience, 2008.

            Degrange, F. J., C. P. Tambussi, K. Moreno, S. Wroe, and L. M. Witmer. 2008. Andalgalornis steulleti (Aves, Phorusrhacidae): respuesta biomecánica del cráneo ante acción de fuerzas extrínsecas. III Latin American Congress of Vertebrate Paleontology, Neuquén, Argentina.

2007    Young, M. T., E. J. Rayfield, P. M. Barrett, P. Upchurch, and L. M. Witmer. 2007. Elucidating the feeding mechanics of Diplodocus longus using the Finite-element method. 51st Annual Meeting of the Palaeontological Association, Uppsala, Sweden. Palaeontological Association Newsletter 66:101.

            Daniel, J. and L. M. Witmer. 2007. The role of soft tissues in sediment infilling and patterning: an actualistic study with ostrich heads. 67th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Austin, TX. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 27(Supplement to 3):65A.

 Dufeau, D. L. and L. M. Witmer. 2007. Ontogeny and phylogeny of the tympanic pneumatic system of crocodyliform archosaurs. 67th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Austin, TX. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 27(Supplement to 3):70A.

 Hieronymus, T. L. and L. M. Witmer. 2007. Skinning dinosaurs: bony correlates and patterns of cephalic skin evolution in Archosauria. 67th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Austin, TX. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 27(Supplement to 3):89A.

 Holliday, C. M. and L. M. Witmer. 2007. The epipterygoid of crocodyliforms and its significance in the evolution of the orbitotemporal region of eusuchians. 67th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Austin, TX. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 27(Supplement to 3):90A.

             Tsuihiji, T., M. Watabe, L. M. Witmer, T. Tsubamoto, K. Tsogtbaatar. 2007. A juvenile skeleton of Tarbosaurus with a nearly complete skull and its implications for ontogenetic change in tyrannosaurids. 67th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Austin, TX. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 27(Supplement to 3):160A.

             Holliday, C. M. and L. M. Witmer. 2007. Cranial kinesis in dinosaurs: significance for functional inferences and evolution. 8th International Congress of Vertebrate Morphology, Paris, France. Journal of Morphology 268(12):1085–1086.

             L. M. Witmer and R. C. Ridgely. 2007. Evolving an on-board flight computer: brains, ears, and exaptation in the evolution of birds and other theropod dinosaurs. 8th International Congress of Vertebrate Morphology, Paris, France. Journal of Morphology 268(12):1150.

            Dufeau, D. L. and L. M. Witmer. 2007. Ontogeny and phylogeny of the tympanic pneumatic system of crocodyliform archosaurs. 8th International Congress of Vertebrate Morphology, Paris, France.

             Ridgely, R. C. and L. M. Witmer. 2007. Gross anatomical brain region approximation (GABRA): a new technique for assessing brain structure in dinosaurs and other fossil archosaurs. 8th International Congress of Vertebrate Morphology, Paris, France. Journal of Morphology 268(12):1124.

             Tickhill, J. and L. M. Witmer. 2007. The Virtual Pig head: digital imaging of cephalic anatomy. 8th International Congress of Vertebrate Morphology, Paris, France. Journal of Morphology 268(12):1141.

             Hieronymus, T. L. and L. M. Witmer. 2007. Turtle beaks, bird beaks, croc beaks? Parallel evolution of rhamphothecae in Sauropsida. 8th International Congress of Vertebrate Morphology, Paris, France. Journal of Morphology 268(12):1083–1084.

            Tickhill, J. and L. M. Witmer. 2007. The Virtual Pig head: digital imaging of cephalic anatomy. Annual Meeting of the Society of Integrative and Comparative Biology, Phoenix, AZ.

            Hieronymus, T. L. and L. M. Witmer. 2007. How dinosaurs build beaks: homology between avian rhamphotheca and diapsid facial scales. Annual Meeting of the Society of Integrative and Comparative Biology, Phoenix, AZ.

            Tsuihiji, T. and L. M. Witmer. 2007. Reconstruction and possible evolutionary changes of muscle and ligament attachments in the occipital region and atlas-axis complex in non-avian theropod dinosaurs. Annual Meeting of the Society of Integrative and Comparative Biology, Phoenix, AZ.

2006    Dufeau, D. L. and L. M. Witmer. 2006. Tympanic pneumaticity in Archosauria: Recognizing patterns of organization and homology. 66th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Ottawa, ON. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 26(Suppl. to 3).

             Hieronymus, T. L. and L. M. Witmer. 2006. Horn morphology of Pachyrhinosaurus and horn evolution in centrosaurine dinosaurs. 66th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Ottawa, ON. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 26(Suppl. to 3).

             Holliday, C. M. and L. M. Witmer. 2006. Critical appraisal of cranial kinesis in dinosaurs. 66th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Ottawa, ON. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 26(Suppl. to 3).

             Ridgely, R. C. and L. M. Witmer. 2006. Dead on arrival: optimizing CT data acquisition of fossils using modern hospital CT scanners. 66th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Ottawa, ON. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 26(Suppl. to 3).

             Ridgely, R. C. and L. M. Witmer. 2006. Braincase morphology in tyrannosaurs using computed tomography and 3D visualization, with special reference to the cerebral endocast and ear region. Annual Meeting of the Society of Integrative and Comparative Biology, Orlando, FL. Journal of Integrative and Comparative Biology 45(6):1183.

             Holliday, C. M. and L. M. Witmer. 2006. Evolutionary morphology of the orbitotemporal region in Archosauria. Annual Meeting of the Society of Integrative and Comparative Biology, Orlando, FL. Integrative and Comparative Biology 45(6):1014.

             Hieronymus, T. L. and L. M. Witmer. 2006. From armor to anchor: Character evolution of the skin and horns of rhinos. Annual Meeting of the Society of Integrative and Comparative Biology, Orlando, FL. Integrative and Comparative Biology 45(6):1012.

             Dufeau, D. L. and L. M. Witmer. 2006. Tympanic pneumaticity in theropod dinosaurs: Recognizing patterns of organization and homology. Annual Meeting of the Society of Integrative and Comparative Biology, Orlando, FL. Integrative and Comparative Biology 45(6):1126.

2005    Rommel, S. A., A. Costidis, L. M. Witmer, R. C. Ridgely, and K. Matassa. 2005. Comparative morphology of the epidural circulation in harbor seals, bottlenose dolphins, and Florida manatees. Society for Marine Mammalogy’s 16th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, San Diego, CA.

            Chapla, M. E., D. P. Nowacek, S. A. Rommel, V. Sadler, and L. M. Witmer. 2005. Three-dimensional reconstructions of a Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) head and isolated ear bone: the search for sound pathways. Society for Marine Mammalogy’s 16th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, San Diego, CA.

             Witmer, L. M. and R. C. Ridgely. 2005. Tyrannosaur brain and ear structure: ontogeny and implications for sensory function and behavior. 65th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Mesa, AZ. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 25(Suppl. to 3):10A.

             Daniel, J. and L. M. Witmer. 2005. Heads and skulls as sediment sorters: an actualistic, CT-based study in taphonomy. 65th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Mesa, AZ. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 25(Suppl. to 3):13A.

             Hieronymus, T. L. and L. M. Witmer. 2005. Revised horn reconstructions for extinct rhinocerotid taxa: separating the contributions of dermis and epidermis to horn rugosities. 65th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Mesa, AZ. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 25(Suppl. to 3):29A.

             Holliday, C. M. and L. M. Witmer. 2005. Anatomical domains within sauropsid heads and their significance for functional interpretation of extinct taxa. Integrative and Comparative Biology 44:570.

2004     L. M. Witmer, R. C. Ridgely, and S. D. Sampson.  2004.The ear region, cerebral endocast, and cephalic sinuses of the abelisaurid theropod dinosaur Majungatholus. 64th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Denver, CO. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 24(Suppl. to 3):131A.

              Ridgely, R. C. and L. M. Witmer.  2004.  New applications of CT scanning and 3D modeling for dinosaur visualization. 64th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Denver, CO. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 24(Suppl. to 3):103A–104A.

              Holliday, C. M. and L. M. Witmer.  2004.  Anatomical domains within the heads of archosaurs and their relevance for functional interpretation. 64th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Denver, CO. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 24(Suppl. to 3):71A.

              Hieronymus, T. L. and L. M. Witmer.  2004.  Cranial rugosity and dinosaur “horns:” rhino and giraffe as model systems for skin reconstruction in fossil taxa. 64th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Denver, CO. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 24(Suppl. to 3):70A.

              L. M. Witmer.  2004.  Invited Plenary Lecture—Fleshing out fossils: the present as the key to a very different past. 7th International Congress of Vertebrate Morphology, Boca Raton, FL. Journal of Morphology 260(3):340.

              Ridgely, R. C. and L. M. Witmer.  2004.  Beyond imaging: Using 3D-datasets in comparative morphology . 7th International Congress of Vertebrate Morphology, Boca Raton, FL. Journal of Morphology 260(3):321–322.

              Clifford, A. B. and L. M. Witmer.  2004.  Rules of construction in proboscis building in mammals. 7th International Congress of Vertebrate Morphology, Boca Raton, FL. Journal of Morphology 260(3):283.

              Hieronymus, T. L. and L. M. Witmer.  2004.  Rhinoceros horn attachment: anatomy and histology of a dermally influenced bone rugosity. 7th International Congress of Vertebrate Morphology, Boca Raton, FL. Journal of Morphology 260(3):298.

             Witmer, L. M., S. Chatterjee, J. Franzosa, T. Rowe, and R. C. Ridgely. 2004. Neuroanatomy and vestibular apparatus of pterosaurs: Implications for flight, posture, and behavior. Annual Meeting of the Society of Integrative and Comparative Biology, New Orleans, LA. Integrative and Comparative Biology 43(6):832.

             Hieronymus, T. L. and L. M. Witmer. 2003. Dermal enthesis: anatomy and histology of rhinoceros horn attachment. Annual Meeting of the Society of Integrative and Comparative Biology, New Orleans, LA. Integrative and Comparative Biology 43(6):874.

2003     Witmer, L. M. 2003. Narial anatomy of ankylosaurian dinosaurs: osteology and soft-tissue reconstruction. 63rd Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, St. Paul, MN. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 23(Suppl. to 3):111A–112A.

             Hieronymus, T. L. and L. M. Witmer. 2003. Rhinoceros horn attachment: anatomy and histology. 63rd Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, St. Paul, MN. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 23(Suppl. to 3):61A.

             Clifford, A. B., and Witmer, L. M.  2003. Nasal structures in moose (Cervidae: Alces). Annual Meeting of the Society of Integrative and Comparative Biology, Toronto, Ontario. Integrative and Comparative Biology 42(6):1209.

             Holliday, C. M. and L. M. Witmer.  2003. Archosaur jaw muscle homology and evolution: extant data. Annual Meeting of the Society of Integrative and Comparative Biology, Toronto, Ontario. Integrative and Comparative Biology 42(6):1244–1245.

2002    Witmer, L. M., S. Chatterjee, T. Rowe, and J. Franzosa.  2002.  Anatomy of the brain and vestibular apparatus in two pterosaurs: implications for flight, head posture, and behavior. Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Norman, Oklahoma. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 22(Suppl. to 3):120A–121A.

 Bimber, O., S. M. Gatesy, and L. M. Witmer.  2002.  Augmented paleontology: merging fossil specimens with computer generated information for analysis and education. Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology.  Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 22(Suppl. to 3):36A.

 Holliday, C. M. and L. M. Witmer.  2002.  Functional anatomy of archosaurian jaw musculature: preliminary findings. Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology.  Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 22(Suppl. to 3):66A.

 Clifford, A. B. and L. M. Witmer.  2002.  Not all noses are hoses: an appraisal of proboscis evolution in mammals. Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology.  Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 22(Suppl. to 3):45.

 Clifford, A. B., and Witmer, L. M.  Proboscis evolution in Mammalia: preliminary studies. Annual Meeting of the Society of Integrative and Comparative Biology, Anaheim, California. American Zoologist 41(6).

            Holliday, C. M., R. C. Ridgely, J. C. Sedlmayr, and Witmer, L. M.  The articular cartilage of extant archosaur limb bones: implications for dinosaur functional morphology and allometry. Annual Meeting of the Society of Integrative and Comparative Biology, Anaheim, California. American Zoologist 41(6).

2001    Witmer, L. M.  The position of the fleshy nostril in dinosaurs and other vertebrates and its significance for nasal function. 61st Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Bozeman, Montana, October.  Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 21 (3:Suppl.).

            Holliday, C. M., R. C. Ridgely, J. C. Sedlmayr, and Witmer, L. M.  The articular cartilage of extant archosaur limb bones: implications for dinosaur functional morphology and allometry. 61st Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Bozeman, Montana, October.  Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 21 (3:Suppl.).

            Hill, R. V., L. M. Witmer, and M. A. Norell.  A new juvenile specimen of Pinacosaurus grangeri: ontogeny and phylogeny of ankylosaurs. 61st Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Bozeman, Montana, October.  Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 21 (3:Suppl.).

            Witmer, L. M.  Reconstructing the evolutionary history of the nasal apparatus of Sauropsida, with special reference to Archosauria. Sixth International Congress of Vertebrate Morphology, Jena, Germany.  Journal of Morphology 248(3):301.

            Sedlmayr, J. C., and L. M Witmer.  Homology and evolution of cephalic vasculature in Archosauria. Sixth International Congress of Vertebrate Morphology, Jena, Germany.  Journal of Morphology 248(3):282.

             Holliday, C. M., J. C. Sedlmayr, R. C. Ridgely, and L. M Witmer.  The articular cartilage of extant archosaur long bones: implications for dinosaur functional morphology and allometry. Sixth International Congress of Vertebrate Morphology, Jena, Germany.  Journal of Morphology 248(3):241–242.  

            Rehorek, S. J., A. H. Savitsky, and L. M. Witmer. Vasculature of the lepidosaur nasal cavity.  Do iguanas have a bloddy nose?. 2001 Annual Meeting of the American Society of Ichthyology and Herpetology, State College, Pennsylvania, July.

             Clifford, A. B., and L. M. Witmer.  The narial anatomy of hooded seals (Cystophora cristata) with respect to other Carnivora.  Annual Meeting of the Society of Integrative and Comparative Biology, Chicago, Illinois, January. American Zoologist 40(6):976.

             Sedlmayr, J. C, and L. M. Witmer.  The avian suborbital air sac and its potential role in brain cooling in birds and other dinosaurs.  Annual Meeting of the Society of Integrative and Comparative Biology, Chicago, Illinois, January. American Zoologist 40(6):1206.

2000     Witmer, L. M. Narial anatomy of extant amniotes and its significance for the interpretation of narial novelty in dinosaurs.  Annual Meeting of the Society of Integrative and Comparative Biology, Atlanta, Georgia. American Zoologist 39(5):98A–99A.

             Sedlmayr, J. C, and L. M. Witmer.  Cephalic vasculature in Archosauria, with special emphasis on the nasal region.  Annual Meeting of the Society of Integrative and Comparative Biology, Atlanta, Georgia. American Zoologist 39(5):16A.

1999     Witmer, L. M., and S. D. Sampson.  Nasal conchae and blood supply in some dinosaurs: physiological implications. 59th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Denver, Colorado, October.  Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 19(3:Suppl.):85A.

             Sampson, S. D., and L. M. Witmer.  Novel narial anatomy in ceratopsid dinosaurs. 59th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Denver, Colorado, October.  Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 19(3:Suppl.):72A-73A.

             Sedlmayr, J. C., and L. M. Witmer.  Cephalic vasculature in extant and fossil Archosauria, with special emphasis on the nasal region. 59th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Denver, Colorado, October.  Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 19(3:Suppl.)74A.

Rehorek, S. J., A. H. Savitsky, L. M. Witmer, and S. D. Sampson. Cephalic vasculature of the green iguana (Iguana iguana) and tokay gecko (Gecko gekko). 1999 Annual Meeting of the American Society of Ichthyology and Herpetology, State College, Pennsylvania, June.

1998     Witmer, L. M.  Aspects of comparative cross-sectional anatomy of dinosaur skulls. 58th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Snowbird, Utah, October.  Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 18(3:Suppl.):87A.

             Witmer, L. M.  Application of the extant phylogenetic bracket (EPB) approach to the problem of anatomical novelty in the fossil record. 58th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Snowbird, Utah, October.  Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 18(3:Suppl.):87A.

             Papp, M. J., and L. M. Witmer. Cheeks, beaks, or freaks: a critical appraisal of buccal soft-tissue anatomy in ornithischian dinosaurs. 58th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Snowbird, Utah, October.  Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 18(3:Suppl.):69A.

             Sedlmayr, J. C., and L. M. Witmer.  Facial vasculature in extant Crocodylia with special reference to narial cavernous tissue. 58th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Snowbird, Utah, October.  Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 18(3:Suppl.):76A.

             Sampson, S. D., Witmer, L. M., Forster, C. A., and Krause, D. W.  1998. The evolution and biogeography of Gondwanan theropod dinosaurs: new information from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar.  Journal of African Earth Sciences 27(1A): 167-168.

1997     Witmer, L. M., and S. D. Sampson.  The interpretation of narial novelty in dinosaurs. 

             Sampson, S. D., L. M. Witmer, C. A. Forster, D. W. Krause, and P. M. O’Connor.  Discovery of a complete theropod skull from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar yields new information on Majungasaurus, Majungatholus, and Abelisauridae.  57th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, New York City, New York, October.  Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 17(3:Suppl.):73A.

             Witmer, L. M.  Bones, air sacs, and natural selection: a new perspective on the function of pneumatic sinuses. Fifth International Congress of Vertebrate Morphology, Bristol, England.  Journal of Morphology 232:340

             Witmer, L. M., and S. D. Sampson.  Unusual narial structures in dinosaurs and other vertebrates. Fifth International Congress of Vertebrate Morphology, Bristol, England.  Journal of Morphology 232:340

1996    Witmer, L. M.  New aspects of the origin of birds: introduction to the Roundtable discussion.  4th International Meeting of the Society of Avian Paleontology and Evolution, Washington, DC, 7 June.

             Witmer, L. M., and W. D. Maxwell.  The skull of Deinonychus (Dinosauria: Theropoda): new insights and implications.  56th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, New York City, New York, October.  Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 16(3:Suppl.):73A.

             Maxwell, W. D., and L. M. Witmer.  New material of Deinonychus (Dinosauria: Theropoda).  56th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, New York City, New York, October.  Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 16(3:Suppl.):51A.

1995     Witmer, L. M.  Craniofacial pneumaticity and skull evolution in theropod dinosaurs.  55th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 1 November.  Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 15(3:Suppl.):60A.

1994     Witmer, L. M.  A revised terminology of the facial osteology of archosauriforms.  54th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Seattle, Washington, 21 October.  Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 14(3:Suppl.):53A.

1993     Witmer, L. M., and D. B. Weishampel. Remains of theropod dinosaurs from the Upper Cretaceous St. Mary River Formation of northwestern Montana, with special reference to a new maniraptoran braincase. 53rd Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Albuquerque, New Mexico. 16 October. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 13(3:Suppl.):63A.

1992     Witmer, L. M.  The many faces of archosaurs: some trends in archosaur facial evolution. 52nd Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. 31 October. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 12(3:Suppl.):60A.

1991     Witmer, L. M.  Homology of facial structures in extant crocodilians and birds: implications for the antorbital fossa of archosaurs. 51st Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, San Diego, California, 26 October.  Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 11(3:Suppl.):62A.

1990     Witmer, L. M.  A new pleurodiran turtle from the Miocene of east Africa and its implications for the phylogenetics of podocnemine pelomedusids.  50th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Lawrence, Kansas, 10 October.  Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 10(3:Suppl.):49A–50A.

             Martin, L. D., and L. M. Witmer. The avifauna of the Niobrara Chalk  50th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, 1990. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 10(3:Suppl.):34A.

1989    Witmer, L. M.  The early evolution of the craniofacial air sac system in birds.  107th Stated meeting of the American Ornithologists’ Union, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 10 August.

             Witmer, L. M., K. D. Rose, and T. M. Bown.  Jaw biomechanics and feeding behavior of the gigantic Eocene bird Diatryma. 49th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Austin, Texas, 3 November.  Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 9(3:Suppl.):45A.

1988    Witmer, L. M.  Aspects of braincase morphology of the Cretaceous bird Hesperornis.  Second International Symposium, Society of Avian Paleontology and Evolution, Los Angeles, California, 29 September.

             Witmer, L. M.  Mechanisms of sound localization in some fossil archosaurs.  48th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Drumheller, Alberta, Canada, 13 October.  Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 8(3:Suppl.):29A.

1987    Witmer, L. M.  The nature of the antorbital fossa of archosaurs: shifting the null hypothesis.  Fourth Symposium on Mesozoic Terrestrial Ecosystems, Drumheller, Alberta, Canada, 12 August.

1986    Witmer, L. M.  Palatal morphology and cranial kinesis in hesperornithiform birds. 104th Stated meeting of the American Ornithologists’ Union, Mississippi State University, Mississippi, 20 August.

            Witmer, L. M.  Cranial pneumaticity in Mesozoic birds. 46th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 6 November.

1985    Witmer, L. M.  The oldest avian palates.  International Roundtable on the Evolution of Birds Based on the Testimony of Fossils, Lyon, France, 18 September.

            Witmer, L. M., and L. D. Martin.  Homologies of the avian palate. 103rd Stated meeting of the American Ornithologists’ Union, Tempe, Arizona, 9 October.

            Witmer, L. M.  The palate of hesperornithiform birds. 45th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Rapid City, South Dakota, 17 October.

1984    Witmer, L. M.  Bird origins and the siphuncular system of birds and crocodiles.  102nd Stated meeting of the American Ornithologists’ Union, Lawrence, Kansas, 7 August.

            Witmer, L. M.  Bird origins and the siphonial system of birds and crocodiles.  44th Annual Meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Berkeley, California, 1 November.

   
  note: Research in the Witmer lab does not involve experimentation on live animals.  Specimens of modern animals used in research are salvage specimens, obtained legally from commercial or governmental sources.
  Ohio University
Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine
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Last updated: 02/11/2017